Managing distributors and their functions

Distributors, merchants, dealers are mainly characterized by two features. First, different from agents who take a commission, they buy stock for re-sale. Second, they are typically but not always chosen by the manufacturer to cover an exact geographical area or sector of the market. Typically, the distributor is a small company, perhaps with only one or two branches in different places. It may be confidentially owned and achieved by the proprietor, an ex-salesman who has chosen for a life of greater independence. Manage distributors is indeed a challenging part of the smooth functioning of the market.

The environment of a distributor

The perfect environment for a distributor is a market with many small customers and where the level of sales service essential is high. The spread of customers is problematic and costly to reach with a directly employed sales force who are more suitable for dealing with a part number of large buyers. Distributors usually aim to win business on sales rather than technical service. Their stock of products means customers can have immediate delivery.

A difficult technical problem may require mentioning to the manufacturer. The distributor may hold simple repair work. Distributors are, therefore, a well-organized means of selling car parts to garages, tools to the industry, or mechanisms to electronic companies. They are unsuitable for selling complex manufacturing plants, processers, or castings. If distributors are not acting well, the manufacturer should ask if a sales force or agency could better assume their job. Distributors will never be proved successful if they are used as a cheap substitute to a sales force – they either fit the circumstances or do not. Many distributors make the blunder of increasing their product range to an uncontrollable level, resulting in the worsening of selling effort. This gives rise to the commonly voiced criticism of manufacturers that distributors are order takers and not order getters. The product range they carry may be bottomless and wide, with various items from high to low ranging values.

Methods to maintain the functionality

Set strict codes for merchandising. Contrary to the belief of some producers, distributors are quite ready to follow a tightly controlled formula for merchandising goods – as long as they know they work.

Assist with Marketing can make it easy. Marketers decide that everyone knows which has manuals to look in for a list of prospects, how to organize a direct mail campaign, and where to place ads. Providers are likely to be achieved by good salesmen and poor marketers. Any help the principal can provide in marketing the products will recover the relationship and help both parties vend more products.

Make the business worthwhile. The margin saves the manufacturer from capitalizing on cars, salesmen, depots, and luxuriously high stock levels. The margin he delivers should be sufficient to cover the distributor’s costs and provide a profit inducement.

Keep the distributor absorbed. Distributors are under constant heaviness to take on a new range or a new dealer. If it is decent, there will be many who want to steal it. The above steps can make the manage distributors easy and efficient for the smooth functioning of the market.

how to start clothing business

How To Start And Run A Clothing Business In Pakistan: Launch Your Own Brand

Fashion Industry expanding at a fast pace across different regions of World day by day

  • According to statistical records of 2020 that claims over four thousand Clothing companies in New South Wales, Australia. Likely the statistics from Germany show that the textile and clothing business has grown in recent years ranging from 5495 companies.
  • The Fashion industry is getting charm day by day. Indeed, on the off chance that we are likely to relate mould firms with the exciting catwalks and the unconventional identities of design originators, behind the window ornaments, there’s much more than meets the eye. Fashion firms are firms in any case, and as such should be dissected within the setting of trade hypothesis and hone, to get it their key conduct and long-term objectives.

Let’s start it!!

Let’s jump into the useful steps and exciting tips needed to launch your own clothing brand. Here we are going to discuss the requirements, investment and tips to leverage the clothing business.

How much investment is needed?

Firstly, we need to understand that starting a business whatever it is, doesn’t need a huge amount of investment. You can start your clothing line with the minimum investment you have. And further ahead you can use the profits to leverage and enhance your business. And yes!! For sure!! It is better to start a clothing line with minimum investment if you are doing it for the first time so that you can acknowledge the pros and cons of the business procedure.

Preplanning of a business map for Clothing Line:

Preplanning about how you will present, market and meet sales target, all of these is concerned with preplanning which will create clarity about goals and will make you consistent for your goals.

As well as an attractive brand title is crucial which depicts your business integrity. Which can express effectively your business integrity and can give ideas about your category of the business listening first time to people.

Find Authentic Raw Material for Manufacturing Clothing Line:

It all depends upon searching and exploring the right market from which you can get the desired material you need to start your own clothing line. Adjusting the good raw material quality with an economic budget is crucial as well.  Networking can help a lot in this regard with friends who are already working in the same clothing business. It is healthy to have advice from such successful clothing line entrepreneurs.

Decide your niche and category:

decide your niche

It totally depends on the fashion and culture accepted by the society you are living in, therefore choosing a niche depends on which class you are targeting and then you can select cultural attires or others’ country culture mixture with you own one.

Use and follow an inspiring business model to establish your own one

Contracting with a Reliable and skilful Tailor; It is crucial that you make a partnership with a skilful and reliable tailor who can sew for your clothing line. Because your clothing products are the core thing that will fulfil your dream to start your own clothing line.

It’s all hit and trial procedure what products are more demanded in your target customer market. According to those demands, you can modify your niche time by time. Because it is necessary to bring out innovations in the plans according to customers’ needs in the market. It is all about experimentation. More the experimentation more you will be good at your clothing business. Just analyze the market needs and then navigate the customers’ response properly so that you can evaluate your progress and as well as your weakness at the right place.

How to price your clothing products

Now let’s come to make the decision on how pricing should be done before your start your own fashion clothing brand. There should be considered our profit margin as well as the economic status of your target customers that how much they are willing to pay. A perfect balance needs to make here so that both parties can avail themselves.

Modification space is present there too. Just go with the flow of market status and keep modify your pricing accordingly to meet the market competition.

What motivates consumers to buy your brand

Three things are motivating for customers to buy products from your clothing line. The first is to start your fashion clothing brand with attractive slogans. Second is you can deliver aesthetic messages to motivate your customer. Thirdly start a clothing business by knowing the cultural attraction for customers.

Juts be organic for starting your clothing business. Being organic is the most attractive for customers when you put yourself in customer’s shoe to know their demands.

Make your brand

As a design or clothing professional, you’re likely to be inventive. And this will stand you in great stead for creating a brand for your startup clothing company. Perused our fundamental tips to make a brand that works for your business. Pick a brand title that requests to your target gathering of people. For occasion, you might select a brand title based on the age of your target gathering of people, like Angle & Kids. And in the event that your store features your claim one-of-a-kind plans, you may always use your title as your brand’s title (a bit like Tommy Hilfiger and Hugo Boss).

Start manufacturing your products

manufacture your products

Go back to your plan work and get everything together. It’s time to require your item to the producers. This can be the point where you’ll be sourcing the individual (or group) that’s getting to take your plans and make them a reality.

Of course, in the event that you’re planning to create everything yourself for presently, or along with you possess hand-picked group, you’ll skip this step! This moreover applies in case you’re essentially looking to purchase ready-made items discount and offer them on.

To begin your hunt for the correct producer, inquire around among any contacts you have got and get a feel for your needs. Is it artisan craftsmanship you’re looking to source or a commercial provider with an accentuation on speed and constancy? Fabricating may be a pivotal portion of any clothing trade, no matter the estimate, so spend time finding, talking to and verifying a great list of potentials. Once you’ve chosen, it’s time to have a test made. Get your chosen producer to run a little bunch of your plans and maybe test them against those from another producer. Calculate in time to examine alterations and advancements, sometime recently you drag the trigger on a full item run. Along along with your claim points and reasons for beginning a clothing line, think almost your potential client. Who are you looking to offer to? Are they likely to lean toward a certain see and feel? Are you planning for individuals who care a part around the general involvement of buying from your brand (from the site or shop floor to name, bundling and e-mail bulletin), or is there a chance of estranging individuals with favour bundling or a millennial see and feel? Whatever you choose, base your brand on your instinctual and a bit of investigation. As distant as your budget permits, figure in cash for bundling and your client communications, and overall, attempt to be steady. It’s no great utilizing lovely bundling one month and a battered jiffy sack the next.

Take it to market

You’ve tried out your item, it’s offering, and you’re prepared to arrange to begin with a full item run. It’s time to induce genuine approximately offering your product, and you’ll have some choices to create before boxing up that first garment. Take the time to consider how you’ll: price your products market your brand create a web clothing store, in case this is often your plan organize any bargains or promotions package up your products ship your items (in the event that working on an arrange basis) deal with any returns or client issues plan ahead along with your producer for modern seasons and active periods This may all be in your commerce arrange, but it’s a great thought to refine the points of interest some time recently you go into full-scale generation.

Online business or Shop launch?

Establishing your online store to start your own fashion brand needs full dedication and input to this work. You may also need some technical support from E-commerce experts. Networking with logo designers and web developers will help you a lot.

It is good to start a clothing brand in Pakistan as an online business as well as a physical shop side by side. It is useful for customers who don’t rely on online market quality. Likely it is inevitable to ignore the online business and marketing strategies as in this era every business is running virtually. Moreover, the online platform establishment help you to advertise properly to start a clothing business.

Advertising is best tool for marketing

tools for marketing

In this era where everyone is using devices for multiple purposes, one cannot ignore to advertise the business brand. The best way to advertise to use the most frequently used social media platforms by the target customers/ audiences. E.g., Facebook ads, Instagram ads and other social media platforms ads.

The important part of an advertisement to make a punch line for a slogan that can directly hit to the customers’ psychology. An attractive slogan and expert photography of your garment items are two core parts of an advertisement. Try to make your advertisement aesthetic, creative and relatable for customers as much as possible. When there is a direct hit for customers’ mindset that builds up a long-term relationship with customers and make you lead for the long term.


You’ve done it. Your clothing company is propelled, you’ve made you to begin with deals and you’re pressing out the wrinkles. Scaling may possibly be on your intellect as a driven commerce proprietor, with plans for modern items or greater orders. Take a few times to reflect on how your commerce is going, sometimes recently committing to any enormous following steps. In truth, it pays to keep things little and straightforward for you to begin with couple of seasons, getting to know the reality of generation and satisfaction sometimes recently taking on the following challenge. Your commerce arrangement may reflect your development timeline, but again, be flexible. You to begin with work might be to enlist you to begin with the worker, to assist you with all of the over, giving you, a few much-needed breathing room to require a stock of the clothing trade you’ve made.

Construct your budget or commerce plan

If this can be truly fair a shoestring thought, and you’re testing your plans on a little scale, you might not require full-on commerce arrange to induce begun. Be careful in spite of the fact that, in case your thought takes off you’ll want to scale lovely rapidly, so it makes sense to keep indeed a harsh plan within the background. Bear in intellect, the fashion industry is famously troublesome to foresee. Plans will get to be adaptable and there are no ensures, so you’ll have to be up for the challenge.

Some additional quick tips to make a successful clothing line

Once you have got made a winning brand and propelled your clothing brand, the following greatest challenge (other than making beyond any doubt that your collections are getting made on time and inside budget) is to advertise your clothing brand. The most enchanting way to advertise your clothing line products by exhibiting your products in an online shop. Increasingly individuals are buying clothing online and so it is so much less demanding than attempting to reach your target gathering of people by means of retail and conventional outlets.

  1. Must have a catchy punchline or tagline: make a separation figure for your brand is to come up with a tagline, trademark, or energizing cry that would interface candidly together with your target advertise.
  2. A Fashion for Each Story: An extraordinary case of a clothing brand talking almost stories and narrating. With this motto, Levi’s is tapping into the reality that each one of us has stories in our lives and they have a fashion to coordinate each one.

It is intense to showcase such theoretical brand messages, but Levis has done it very well due to their bequest and history. Indeed, in case you’re beginning out, you ought to centre on the stories of your clients and their world see.

Written By: Musaab Muattar

Find Influencers

Top 5 Tips to Find Influencers in Your Niche

Finding influencers on various social media platforms who can assist you in getting your business in front of your target audiences is a great way to reach out to new people, boost traffic to your social media pages including the website, increase brand awareness and sales. 

When it comes to consumer spending, social media platforms have a huge impact on customers’ buying decisions. Today’s customers are not interested in hard selling. The moment they get a hint of “ad” they lose interest in whatever they are watching or reading. 

Whether you sell diapers, toys, or coloring books, just one positive recommendation from a trusted source can enhance your promotion and push a few sales further. Of course, the content created by your in-house can help in building trust with your target audiences, but sometimes, all your target audiences need is one word of positive review from a like-minded person that your customers know, trust, and follow.   

Today, we have decided to put together the best and top 5 tips that will make your process of finding influencers easy and simple. 

Tip 1: Define your goals on a paper before you start looking for influencers

Even though there are hundreds and thousands of influencers on social media platforms, not every influencer is right for your business. Not just that, right from a mom influencer to a celebrity influencer, there are a variety of influencers in every niche. So don’t just reach out to everyone who comes in your niche. Focus on finding the right influencers. 

Now, who are the right influencers and how do we know they are the right ones? The right influencers are people or brands that can help you in achieving your business goals and bring you closer to your target audience. 

Before you even reach out to an influencer, build your influencer marketing campaign as it is the first thing any influencer would ask you when you talk to them about influencer marketing is– What are your goals, and how do you plan to achieve them? For example, your influencer marketing campaign objectives may include:

→ Brand awareness

→ Building brand identity

→ Lead generation

→ Link building

→ Reaching out to new audiences


Once you clearly understand what you want and what your goals are, then you will be able to assess who the right influencer for your brand is and whether they will be able to help you achieve those results. 

Tip 2: Figure out which influencer campaign will help you achieve the results you want

Once you map out the marketing plan, it’s now time to figure out what kind of marketing campaign will help you in connecting with the influencers you want to work with. 


For instance, there are various types of influencer campaigns:


→ Guest posting: Influencers who will let you write about your brand on their blog

→ Contests & giveaways: Utilizing contests and giveaways as incentives in return to get them to mention your brand on their social media pages.

→ Gifting: Giving gifts to influencers for mentions, posts, etc. 

→ Sponsored content: Paying influencers to create a certain type of content to promote your brand to increase sales or brand awareness. 

→ Affiliate marketing: Influencers earn some percentage as commission when their followers make a purchase using influencer’s affiliate codes.

→ Brand ambassadors: Partnering with influencers who will promote your products or services on a regular basis for discounts and other benefits from your brand in return.  


Tip 3: Look for influencers in your niche or who are related to your industry


If you don’t know how or where to start looking for influencers in your niche, afluencer is a good start. In addition, you can set up a Google alert for industry-related terms to keep an eye on who is creating content related to industry or business and browse forums like Quora to see who is providing answers to questions that are relevant to your business. 


Tip 4: Find influencers who have the same audience


Even though the influencers you work with don’t necessarily need to be related to your industry but they certainly should have the same audience as yours. Influencers who share your audience can do more justice to their work and add more value when compared to influencers who don’t. 


So try to run a target audience analysis to completely understand your ideal target audience, what they need, interests, etc. Knowing this will help you in identifying other influencers who your target audience follows but are not actually in your niche. This will guide you in connecting with your target audiences whose DMs are not bombarded with promotional messages from your competitors. 


Tip 5: Know the authority of the influencer you work with


When you are filtering out the influencers, also consider their authority as a factor to determine if they have enough reach to help you in accomplishing your business goals and get you the results you want. Influencer analysis is one of the vital elements of knowing how to find the right influencer who can help you reach your target audience. 


Here are some of the factors that you need to consider:


→ Number of followers

→ Post engagement rate

→ Quality of content

→ Depth of niche coverage 


Design a complete influencer marketing strategy


Influencers alone can’t get you the results or goals you want to accomplish. A strategically planned influencer marketing campaign can. A complete influencer marketing strategy will leverage the influencers most relevant to your goals, audience, and niche and can help you achieve those goals.


Whatever your niche is, you can connect with influencers to create the quality, relatable, and authentic content that your audience expects to associate with your brand. And, one more thing you need to remember is that influencers are more than just bloggers 


With the aforementioned tips, now you can find the right influencers, who are related to your industry and create an effective marketing campaign that will assist you in increasing brand awareness, drive traffic, generate leads, and enhance sales. 


So try to run a target audience analysis to completely understand your ideal target audience, what they need, interests, etc. Knowing this will help you in identifying other influencers who your target audience follows but are not actually in your niche. This will guide you in connecting with your target audiences whose DMs are not bombarded with promotional messages from your competitors. 

Pet Sanctuary
Pets & Animals

Ways To Make Your Home Into A Pet Sanctuary

Are you looking to transform your home into a perfect sanctuary for pets? Are you fed up with seeing your cat, dog, or other exotic animals in dirty and unkempt conditions? If so, then you need a home makeover. There are plenty of ways to improve the look and feel of your home, but one way that is easy and affordable is through adding a pet’s area.

Imagine having a space that is designed just for your furry little friend! This will give your home the ideal location to create the perfect atmosphere for your four-legged family member. They will be able to spend more time relaxing in their own space, instead of running around your house.

Tips To Create Separate Home For The Pets

  • Select the perfect area for your pet. One option is to place them in an area of the room that has soft, cozy furnishings. Many people choose to put them in an area with a lot of windows to capture the natural light. Please select an area with enough room to allow your animal to run, but not so much space that it will get out of control. Another option is to place them in a corner, where they will have access to a lot of light but cannot knock over anything. Think about where you would like to place your pets, and make sure to plan accordingly.


  • Once you have chosen the right spot, the next step is to create the right atmosphere. Consider how you would like to see this area of your home. Do you want it to be calm and serene, with little to no activity? Would you like it to be vibrant and full of action, or are you satisfied with a more relaxed, more relaxing atmosphere? Once you decide on the overall feel of your home, you will be better able to accentuate the areas of your home that will showcase your pet.


  • You can also set up a cat tree for the cats. Various types of cat trees can be found, from ones that only hold one cat to ones that can hold up to six pets at a time. Excellent addition to any home, a cat tree can give your pets a place to sleep. A cat tree can provide your home a unique look, and you will enjoy looking at it while you are away. If you cannot find a cat tree that fits your home decor, you can always build your own.


  • Provide a wedge pillow for your fur babies. This type of pillow is designed specifically with the animal in mind. They are specifically shaped like a wedge and will curve around the curves of the pet’s body, keeping them from rolling off the bed or the couch. They can easily be used for more extended periods and do not require that the pet take any particular medications to keep them comfortable. The surface of a wedge pillow has a triangular shape and would prevent the head from falling by supporting the neck.Your dog or cat will enjoy the extra comfort that these pillows provide.


  • If you want to transform your home into a perfect sanctuary for pets, you may also want to purchase a nice kitty litter box. Cats and dogs love to poop, but if your home is messy and clogged with waste, they will avoid it. To discourage your dog or cat from going outside to do their business, you can place this litter box in your foyer, garage, or anywhere else that seems out of the way. You will be thrilled that you took this simple step when selecting the perfect home decor items for your home.


  • Finally, one of the top tips to transform your home into a perfect sanctuary for pets is to make sure your family and guests know to keep their pets off of your furniture and carpets. Pets, especially cats, can climb, crawl, and dig into things that we wouldn’t usually be able to reach. Given a beautiful floor, you intend to use it as a centerpiece. You can be assured that your cat or dog will not dig underneath to jump or dig at things that you might be working on. This is just another safety feature to ensure that you have a safe and cozy home to come back to each day after a long day at work. It will also give you a little extra time to clean up your home, which may not seem like it’s all that important, but when you have a clean house to come home to every day, you are less likely to get sick or feel stressed out.

If you plan to buy comforters and duvets for pets, some essential things need to be considered first. For one, you have to know the size of the pet. This is especially important because if you bought a colossal comforter for your sofa and realized that it would not fit your pet, it would just give you a huge disappointment. So before actually buying the item, you have to determine the dimensions of duvets and comforters. You might also want to measure the size of your pet’s neck so that you would know what kind of comforter would best fit them. Also, do not forget to consider your pets’ weight when buying the correct size.


So, these are the considerations that need to be kept in mind while trying to make a sanctuary for the pets at your home.

Get The Best Sleep
Health and Fitness

How To Get The Best Sleep Ever

Having good sleep has several benefits when it comes to one’s overall health. If you are experiencing poor health, then the lack of sleep may affect your overall health. For example, if you suffer from a disease that makes you tired or fatigued easily, sleeping may help you recover faster. It also allows you to rest at night and heal more quickly from whatever illness or injury you have suffered. If you are looking to get a good night’s sleep because of these reasons, you will want to know the best way to get it.

Need For A Good Sleep

One way to get the proper amount of sleep is by creating a sleep schedule for yourself. Each night, make sure you get at least 8 hours of sleep so that you will have enough energy to live the next day properly. Also, you can use polyfoam wedge pillows that are pretty firm and bouncy to get a comfortable sleep. If you do not get enough sleep, you will feel exhausted and lose all the energy you had the previous day. Therefore, the trick is finding a balance between the two – getting enough sleep every night but making sure you still get some rest at night as well. Creating a sleep schedule is not difficult to do, and you can create one yourself by using specific tools.

A night of good sleep is critical to your overall health, and you need to make sure that you get one every night. Also, make sure to make some healthy lifestyle changes to make sure that you are staying healthy. For example, if you drink alcohol at night, stop it immediately. If you smoke cigarettes, use an alternative that is healthier for you. These are all helpful tips that you can follow to get a better night of sleep and maintain healthy body weight.

Ways To Get The Best Sleep

Want to know how to get the best sleep ever? It’s pretty simple if you do it right! We’re going to go over the basics of getting to sleep tonight.

So, what exactly is sleep? Simply put, it is a state of being where all your body systems are synchronized, and all your organs work together. To get this, the brain has to be in its most relaxed and inactive state. When that happens, your body can rest.

We can get a bedtime routine and follow it. For instance, if you wake up at 6:00 in the morning, don’t get out of bed until 8:00. Doing this every morning will set you up to sleep well. When it comes to sleeping, the main goal is to get as much sleep as you can sleep. As stated above, sleep is essential, so we need to make sure to get it regularly! How can we do that? Well, here are three great tips!

  • First of all, we must train our brains to recognize patterns and our body to respond to those patterns. This means we must prepare ourselves to fall asleep and wake up at similar times each day. This means that by training our minds to sleep at various times throughout the day, we are bettering our chances of getting to sleep at night. This is a straightforward process, and once you master it, you will notice that you will sleep better at night. Just take some time every day and think about when you wake up and what you did during the day. Brainwave entrainment is a way of using recordings of your brain waves to help you sleep. This is a tried method, and it does work. It works by changing your brainwave patterns to fall asleep at a particular time each day.
  • Another way to get your mind ready for sleep is by doing yoga or meditation. Meditating or stretching our muscles can help calm our minds and bodies and put us in the frame of mind to sleep easier. So how can we do this? Well, relax our minds first by listening to music, playing some calming CD’s or even trying to sleep by listening to instrumental albums. After which, close your eyes and try to focus on as much detail as possible, even if that means shutting out everything else around you for a few minutes!
  • Now, once you have done all of that, it is time to start preparing yourself for sleep. Do not eat anything after midnight because your body becomes tired and cannot function as it usually would. Also, do not drink any alcohol or take any caffeine stimulants before bed either. These are the only things that can interfere with your sleep cycle.
  • Once you have done all that, you should probably prepare yourself for a nice, peaceful sleep. An excellent way to start is by drinking warm milk about half an hour before you need to go to sleep. This will give you that happy feeling that makes you feel prepared for rest. Do this with a mug of cocoa too. You may also like to have chocolates for some added taste, but avoid those with extra sugar! And lastly, put a blanket or sheet over your pajamas to not get messed up.
  • Getting the best sleep is essential because not only does it help you get a good night’s rest, but it can also prevent you from gaining weight! Sleep helps you recharge and re-energize, so eating right before you lay down can be very beneficial. Eating snacks high in carbohydrates can hinder your sleep cycle, so stick to healthier options. Make sure that you are getting enough protein and calories so that your body can function correctly.

If you are still wondering how to get the best sleep ever, you should know that you need a comfortable bed and pillow. You need to make sure that you are lying on a flat surface not to feel as though you are leaning too much towards the wall. You also need to ensure that the room’s temperature is comfortable and that you are asleep before you feel that it is too hot or cold out. Avoiding alcohol can help you go to sleep soundly as well. Avoiding other stimulants such as tea, coffee, tobacco can also help you wind down and feel sleepy faster!

And if you are not pleased with the mattress you have, buy a mattress storage bag and store aside your mattress for recycling or later use. You must research and get a new mattress for yourself.


Once you learn how to get to sleep fast and easily, you can ensure that your rest is much more enjoyable. All you need to do is get plenty of sleep, and everything else will fall into place. Getting lots of sleep will make you feel great and keep you healthy for many years to come. Sleep disorders are harmful to you because not getting enough sleep can be detrimental to your health!


what are the sources of knowledge? Define scientific method and describe its different steps.


Q no.1

what are the sources of knowledge? Define scientific method and describe its different steps.


Knowledge, in general, contains facts and ideas that make one understandevents and problem solving. A pragmatic test of human knowledge and commandits: Can I use this information to understand, explain, control, predict, or deal with agiven the status? Information can range from a simple view of an object to a file ofa deeper understanding of complex doctrine. Information can be found atdirecting personal experiences or from multiple flooding sourcesalways with conflicting claims of useful information.Claims for information on any difficulty level or any other source may arise from thosevery reliable for those who are completely unreliable. Floating movementimages recorded in our consciousness can deceive us into making misconceptionsof circumstances. The second authority we rely on for information is possibleknow what you are talking about. Verification as reliable, the information must passsome kind of success test: it should be based on evidence. What evidence is needed?How much evidence is needed? When does a person really know that he knows?

Sources of knowledge:

When his usual way of dealing with the situation produces disappointing results, man use simple methods to try solutions. By comparison experience in problem solving, he was gradually able to refine his quest for knowledge methods. Times of insecurity and occasional delays have hampered cultural progress, but there has been a thrilling escape, and a long-term trend has been expressed by knowledge expansion.

Scientific method:

To understand any complex human task we must understand language and method pursued people. The same is true of understanding science and scientific research. One must know and understand, at least in part, the language of science and  how to solve problems. One of the most confusing things about a science student is the special way a scientist does Uses common words. To make matters worse, you invent new words. There is good the reasons for this special use of language, which will emerge over time. That’s enough say now that we must understand and learn the language of the mind as well teaching scientists. When a psychologist tells us about his independence and the variety that depends on him should know what he means. When he tells us he has it randomly his testing procedures, we just don’t have to know what he means – we he must understand why he is doing what he is doing.

Similarly, the way a scientist in his problems should be well understood. Not at all so much so that this approach is different from the usual one. It’s different, that’s right, but that’s right not strange and esoteric. On the contrary. When understood, it will seem natural again it is almost inevitable that the scientist does what he does Really, we will wonder why so much human thinking and problem solving is so unorganized with such lines.

it is not possible to provide complete and satisfactory explanations due to lack of domain at this early stage in our development. In such cases we will try to build and use the first accurate estimates of the most recent, most satisfying books. Let’s get started our study by looking at how a scientist gets into his problems and this approach is different from what might be called the standard method.

Science and Common Sense

Whitehead pointed out that in the idea of ​​creating a common sense he is a bad king. “Part of it one condition of judgment is that new ideas will look like old ones. ”1 This is it means well. Common sense may be a bad postage test. However How are science and common sense similar and different? From one the theory, the science and the concept are the same. This theory would suggest that science is systematic and controlled expansion of common sense, from the functioning of the mind as  presents, a series of ideas and conceptual systems of practical reality human consumption. But these concepts and schemes are not critical

misleading modern science – and especially psychology and education. It was a revelation to many teachers of the last century – it was a common idea – to use it punishment as a basic teaching tool. Now we have evidence that this is old, the commonsense view of the cause may be quite wrong. The look seems to work very well there is a penalty for helping to learn.

Science and common sense differ greatly in five ways. This disagreement is reversed around the terms “organized” and “controlled. ”First, the use of conceptual schemes and theoretical structures are surprisingly different while the man on the street uses “Ideas” and concepts; you tend to do that freely. He often speaks badly embraces the beautiful descriptions of nature and man. For example, illness, it can be considered a punishment for sin. Economic depression can be pointed to the Jews. The scientist, on the other hand, formulates his theory systematically the structures test them for internal consistency, and the characteristics of their dynamic subjects examination. Furthermore, he realizes that the concepts he uses in human terms are possible or it may not reflect a close relationship with reality.

Charles Pierce, an American great philosopher, said that there are four common way by knowing or, as he says, by correcting a belief. The first is the firmness. Here men hold fast to the truth, the truth that they know to be true because they hold fast to it, because they already knew that it was true. Repeated repetition of these “facts” is evident to strengthen their effectiveness. Recent psychological evidence has shown us that men often do hold fast to their beliefs when faced with clear facts. And they too will focus “New” information from potentially false suggestions. The second way to know or correct a belief is through authority. This is established belief system.

If the Bible says so, that’s right. If a well-known scientist says there is God, that’s right. If the idea has the weight of culture and social judgment behind it, so be it. As Peirce points out, this approach is higher than the firmness, for man progress, though slow, can be achieved by means of a method. In fact, life was not going well out of the way of authority. We must take a great

body of facts and knowledge the basis of authority. Therefore, it should not be concluded that the method of authority absurd; it only makes sense under certain circumstances. The priori method is the third way to know or correct a belief. (Cohen and Nagel call it that the method of intuition.) It imposes its charge on supremacy0 that Suggestions adopted by the “racist” are clear. Note that priori suggestions “Agree with the reason” and not with experience. The idea seems to be that those men, are free communication and sexuality, can come to reality because of their natural tendency tend to be more precisely the kind of thinking that is expressed in the “I agree for a reason, ”Whose motive? Suppose two good men, using good judgment, reached out various conclusions, as they often do. Which is right? Is it a matter of taste, like Peirce do you put it If something is clear to most men – for example, that teaches difficult lessons he trains the mind and builds character, that American education is inferior to Russia and European education, that women are poor drivers – does that mean that? According to in the priori process, it does — it simply “makes sense.

The fourth method is the scientific method. Says Peirce: To satisfy our doubts …. therefore, it is necessary that a way be found5 with where our beliefs can be determined by any human being, but by living on the outside forever – something that our thinking has no effect on …. so that everyone’s end will be the same. That’s the way it is science. Its basic premise … is this: There are realities, with their characters completely without our opinions about them….

The scientific method6 has one feature that there is no other way to reach knowledge has: self-improvement. There are built-in checks all the way to science information. This test is pregnant and is used to control and confirm that scientific work and conclusions until the end of obtaining reliable external information . Even if the hypothesis seems to be supported by research, a scientist will support it explore other ways of thinking that, if supported, could raise doubts about the original hypothesis.

The scientist does not accept the statement as fact, even though the evidence initially appears promising. He insists on trying it. He also emphasizes that any testing process is open social testing. As Peirce points out, the checks used in scientific research are as sticky as possible the truth lies outside the scientist and his beliefs, his ideas, racism, values, attitudes, and feelings. Probably the only one that stands out above all others. But, as we’ll see later, the scientific method involves more than that. The point is that a lot Reliable information is available through science because in the end science is appealing evidence: proposals are legally tested. Dispute can be raised: The theory, which scientists use and propose, is part of the individual. However, as Polanyi points out without, “Opinion is something different than me” so the theory helps the scientist to achieve it a great aim. In short, scientists systematically and discreetly use the self-correcting aspect of the scientific method.

Steps for the Scientific Approach

In a scientific way, meaningful collection of facts replaces unconventional data collection, and buildings are tested by hope rather than speculative facts. When using scientific method, one locks back and forth between capture and importation;  he participates in enlightening thinking. In 1910, John Dewey, as we think, analyzed the sections of work involved in the act of reflective thinking. Dropping dialogue divides the five stages into the problem-solving process:

  1. The difficulty you feel

A person experiences a particular obstacle, experience, or problem that puzzles him.

  1. He has no way of reaching the end he wants.
  2. You have trouble identifying the character of the object.
  3. Cannot describe an unexpected event.
  4. Local difficulties and governance

Man looks – gathers facts – enables him to explain his difficulties accurately.

  1. Suggested problem-solving solutions

From his first study of facts man made wise predictions about potential solutions to the problem. Lovely statements – getting acquainted with him offers to explain the troubling facts called hypotheses.

  1. Contemplating the release of the results of the proposed solutions

One assumes that if each hypothesis is true, there are certain consequences should follow.

  1. Exploring ideas for action

One tests each hypothesis by searching for physical evidence that will confirm it whether the results to follow are possible or not. Through this process, you find out which hypothesis agrees with the real facts and then gives the most reliable solution to his problem. These steps in the act of enlightening thinking reveal how input and reduction work conflicting stocks of scientific cuts that cut pieces of truth. “Introduction provides a basis for thought, and reduction is a logical test the results of hypotheses, to eliminate those that do not facts, while the invention also contributes to the validity of the remaining thought ” (120: 4). Research work continues to change between data collection; to do generalizations (hypotheses) to explain facts; Reducing his effects ideas; and searching for additional facts to test ideas. By using both of admission and detention, you have access to reliable information.

The scientific approach presented above provides insight into the processes involved in conducting the investigation. These steps are calculated separately as well obviously, however, it can provide a more accurate view of the research process. These the steps do not provide a strong pattern in which the scientist has to force his thinking, because mere imagination cannot be planned. Investigators do not usually follow a set sequence of procedures. Research is often a confusing, soft process rather than a logical one, single order. The investigator does not take one step at a time, complete the process, and then move on to the next step. He may face irregular steps, stepping back again step out between steps, or work two or more steps at the same time. Other steps may be possible need less effort; other steps can take unequal time and energy.

When the researcher reports his findings to the scientific community, he builds its presentation in a straightforward and well-organized way is similar to the steps of the scientific method listed above.

Q no.2

Describe different types of research categorized on the basis of method used and the purpose of reserach.


Classification of Educational Research

Educational research can be divided into three categories; basic research ‘,’ used research ‘and’ performance research ‘. However, it should be borne in mind that there are no clear lines separating these types of studies. The basic research was the work of psychologists rather than teachers. Most academic research is applied research. Action research, in general, is the domain of class teachers.

Basis or Basis for Meaningful Research

This means that this is sometimes called ‘pure research’ or ‘basic research’. Icon it is aimed at discovering basic truths or principles and does not immediately matter Application for a specific field. Basic research emphasizes control and accuracy and provides little paying attention to the direct use of the result in the field condition. According to Travers, “Basic research is designed to complement the field of scientific knowledge and is doing it not to produce immediate value results ”.

Test method – Basic research is usually done in a laboratory and is good equipment and equipment transactions are required to conduct research. Researcher uses animal topics — As study staff are fundamentally concerned ethics and animal research allow for a much higher level of control rather than possible through human studies; basic research uses an animal rather than a human lessons. Research by staff in other fields – A lot of basic research with results in education it is done by workers in other behavioral sciences such as social.

 Featured Research

Definition – Research used or commonly referred to as ‘field research’ is particularly relevant establishing relationships and exploring ideas in field setting and applying for alternatives human samples from which research studies are conducted. For example, a Studying the friendly pattern of eighth grade students is very important if the sample has it selected in such a way that the results are expected to work well other samples of the same people. Travers notes that the research used by designed to solve a quick problem with the goal of adding scientific knowledge it is the second thing. The studies used sacrifice some degree of control and accuracy compared to basic research.

Basic and applied research

Meaning –– In basic research, the researcher tries to control the situation by using laboratory techniques or other techniques. In the research used, the researcher is involved in making inquiries in an ongoing psycho-sociological complex educational activities. There are a large number of variables in the study used border control and accuracy.

The research used is, however, conducted in real-life context a researcher interested in a quick solution to a problem. Basically research, motivation is internal and the amount of research contributes to knowledge development. Both the basic research and the applied research are committed to the highest standards of opposition to science and learning. For each type of study, the researcher tries describe the problem read accurately, you get his thoughts on the rich man source of problem-related information, build research to result in actual examination of the hypothesis, collection and analysis of facts or evidence carefully and diligently drawing done with an open mind. However, situations where these two researchers conducting their studies may differ as previously seen if the terms of control are the same accurately.

Action Research

Definition – An action study sometimes called a work study involves applying of scientific approach to classroom problems.

Activity research is similar to he used research in many ways. The research used, usually involves a large number of samples compared with the action study. In practical research many research projects have been devised is done in one classroom by one teacher, and the others can be conducted all teachers in the school or school district.

According to Best, “Action Research focuses on immediate application, not on doctrinal development, or general application. ”Action study puts Emphasis of problem, ‘here now’. Applies to location planning. In the words of Jane Franseth of the U.S. Department of Education, “Practical research is systematic tests performed by individuals or groups studying their habits in search of sound answers to the unsolved problems in their work and aimed at improving them their performance ”.

“One of the best ways to improve people’s performance is,” says Corey, “practical research curriculum practices enable them to learn what they are doing try out the ideas that seem most promising and find evidence to find out if they are better ”.

Action research is less concerned with acquiring general scientific knowledge on educational problems but on acquiring specific information regarding topics involved in the study.

Stephen M. Corey, a pioneer in the field, describes the study of actions as:

” Most research into what should be kept in schools and what should go with it should be added should be done by hundreds and thousands of classes and thousands of communities. Studies should be conducted by those who are likely to change course they do things for the sake of studies. Our schools can’t keep up with the real life it must continue and develop except that teachers, students, administrators, administrators as well school sponsors continue to test whether they are doing it. Single and in groups, they should use their imagination again constructively and constructively to identify actions to be taken adaptation to meet the needs and requirements of modern life, boldly try those practices that offer better promise, and in a collective way are evidence of testing their suitability. This is a process I call action research. I don’t have a special abbreviation for the word, but it does some kind of money and it explains enough. ”

Lehmann and Mehrens (1971) point out; “A case study is a form of application or decision direct research, but on the condition that the researcher is the same person as no a doctor who will make and live with this decision. ”

Personnel and Activity Research

In Action in academic research, researchers are usually teachers, curriculum staff, principals, managers or others have a major role to play in helping to provide quality education student experiences. The basic point is that teachers, administrators, and administrators will improve decisions and practice the most effective practices if they are also, able and willing conducting research as a basis for these decisions and practices. The process there doctors try to study their problems scientifically in order to correct, correct, and examining their decisions and actions is what many people call action research.

The book ‘Research in Education’ is published by the National Institute of Basic Education is defined as;

“Research is the research that a person does to achieve his or her goals successful goals. The teacher conducts research into actions to improve her own to teach. The school principal conducts research into actions to improve his or her management behavior. Action research represents and seeks to be more directed, more objective, and more scientifically. It results in a more thorough diagnosis and further objective testing the consequences of the action. To the extent and action aimed at effective resolution the problem arises from targeted tests, targeted at that problem and its causes, the problem is too good to be solved. The standard computer system leads to take action but after that the problem remains. Action research is a process that attempts to keep problem solving literally in contact at all stages. ”

Scope – The method of research into action to deal with real problems seems to be the case suitable and promising all kinds of professional education staff as long as their desire to improve their morals. Manager Dissatisfied with his efforts to promote good manners to his employees he may face this problem with action research, e.g. He will only do that, however, if he accepts a certain moral obligation and was willing to make some changes for him Your behavior to improve it.Exploration, Evaluation, and Descriptive Researchn the term descriptive research is often misused to describe three types of fundamentally different investigations. Perhaps their unfounded similarities are hidden their difference. Each of them uses a process of directed research using the data collection and analysis that empowers each effort to improve knowledge. Uku properly designed, each requires the expertise of a careful and systematic investigator. A brief description can help to put each one in a proper position. Exploration is a fact-finding activity that describes situations in particular time. No hypotheses are proposed or tested, no various relationships are tested, either no action recommendations are suggested. National census is a form of major research conducted by Bureau of Census, section of the United States Department of Commerce. Every 10 years of census, with classified data, nationality, age, gender, race, marital status, level of education, region and community. 3

 Define casual comparative (ex-post fector ) research and discuss it in detail with examples.


 Post Facto or Causal-Comparative Studies

Descriptive research seeks to find answers to questions about variable analysis relationships. What features seem to be associated with the emergence, effects, situations, or types of behavior? Because often it is impossible or wrong to edit events, analysis of past events or existing conditions the only possible way to study causation. This type of study is often referred to as ex post facto or causal comparison study or, when using a combination analysis, it is possible can be considered a parallel study. For example, one would not plan a car accident to learn their causes.

Automotive industry, police departments, safety commissions and insurance companies learn about situations associated with accidents that have already occurred. That’s right faulty items or excessive speed failure, driving under the influence alcohol, while others have been identified as the cause.

However, while studies of past events may be the only possible way to investigate certain problems, the researcher needs to know the problems found in this type of research. The researcher should be aware of the fact that the information used in the previous post facto studies may be incomplete. That is, the researcher may not have enough information about all

the events and variations that occur during the study. This is missing Control or information about which variables are controlled makes it justified statements based on this type of research are extremely difficult to perform.

Research on tobacco use has had a profound impact on society television advertising and smoking in some places are caused by the U.S. Reports of Surgeon General (1964.1979). These reports included a study of epidemiologists on the effects of smoking on human health. Epidemiological research methods are used to study the styles and occurrences of diseases and explain them naturally.

Epi-demonological research on smoking involves two types of explanation: retrospective studies relate to human and medical history and death records; future studies follow a group of people indefinitely or until they are dying. Early studies, from 1939 to the early 1960s, went back mainly to.

These studies found that people who had a Jed for lung cancer were more likely to have it they smoked more than non-smokers A number of prospective studies, begun in the 1950s, found a greater likelihood of a  variety of health problems among smokers than nonsmokers. Mortality ratio is simply observed deaths divided by expected deaths.

As the Surgeon General’s report states The mortality rate of male smokers compared to non-smokers, for all causes of combined deaths, 1.68 represents the total death toll of approximately 70 percent more than non-smokers. (This rate includes the death rates of unregistered diseases in the table and the 14 disease categories shown.)

In the combined results from seven studies, the average death toll for smokers in addition to nonsmokers it was very high in many diseases: lung cancer (10.8). bronchitis and emphysema (6.I) cancer of the larynx (5.4), oral Cancer (4.1), esophagus cancer (3.4) peptic ulcer (2.8), and other circulatory group diseases (2.6). According to cardiovascular disease the average mortality rate was 1.7. Expressed in percentage form, this is equivalent to a coronary artery statement disease, the leading cause of death in the country, the mortality rate is 70 percent more than smokers of tobacco.

Chronic bronchitis and emphysema, which is one of the leading causes of severe disability, the death rate for smokers is 500 percent higher than for non-smokers. With lung cancer, the most common cause of cancer in men is the mortality rate about 1,000 percent, (pp. 28-29) While this evidence seems overwhelming, they do not fully believe it. Since Investigators have not been able to randomize people in smoking and non-smoking groups it is possible that people who decide to smoke are people who are particularly nervous Their fears, not their smoking, cause their high incidence of illness as well premature death.

Just this research, as well as chemical analysis showing carcinogens with cigarette smoke and animal studies, it satisfies many scientists too the community. Youth violence studies can compare social and educational backgrounds criminals and non-criminals. What features, if any, were common in the nonprofit group? Any common items in one group, but not in another, can serve as a possible explanation for the causes of crime.

Further efforts have been made to integrate good or bad teaching with the type of an educational institution where teachers prepare. Those studies have proved inaccessible, perhaps for some reason. In addition to the difficulty of finding effective and satisfactory methods of teaching good and bad, many things except the kind of the college he went to seemed important. Variations such as reading quality, socio-economic status, personality traits, types of non-school experiences, attitudes toward teaching, and a host of others are likely to be the same.

Hoc Hoc Post

One of the greatest risks of ex post facto and comparative research causes is Post hoc fallacy, the conclusion that because two things come together one must be cause and other effect. Because there seems to be a higher relationship between the number of years of study completed and paid, many teachers objected that staying in school will increase the x value of income over a period of time each additional year of education is completed. Or there may be such a relationship, it is also possible that some of the features.

That influences young people to want more education is more important than the standard of education achieved. Features such as economic status, persistence, desire, willingness to give up quickly fun, and the level of ingenuity are undoubtedly important factors in handicrafts success. Staying in school can be a sign and not a cause.

Some critics of tobacco cancer research have developed a similar argument. That’s the case suggest following this line of reasoning: Suppose some people have the type of gland imbalance has a tendency to cancer. Inequality creates a certain amount, of emotional disturbances. Because heavy smoking is a form of smoking release of disputes, these people tend to smoke heavily. Cancer could not it is caused by an imbalance of hunger rather than from smoking, which is a mark. This is the error of confusing symptoms or things that are simply related to the cause it can lead researchers to discover the causal-d-effect relationship

This image was not presented to undermine this type of cancer research. Important evidence reveals an important relationship. Laboratory tests are supported the causal relationship between coal products released from cigarettes inflammation and lethal growth in animals. The definition of organization, however, is correct which should always be carefully checked. Ex post facto and applied comparative research is widely used and appropriate, especially in behavioral science. In education, because it is impossible, impossible, or unthinkable to manage flexibility such as competence, ingenuity, personality traits, cultural deprivation, teacher skills, and other possible variables introduces an unacceptable threat to people, this method will continue to be used.

However, its limitations should be noted:

  1. Independent variations cannot be made.
  2. Articles cannot be randomly assigned, or otherwise, assigned to treatment groups
  3. The causes are often more than one.

For these reasons scientists are reluctant to use the expression and the effect of no experimental studies where the variable was not a pair, variable B is consistently consistent, perhaps for completely incomprehensible or fully explained reasons. Given the risk of confusing symptoms and causes, ex post facto research is worthwhile not only test one hypothesis but also other rational or competing minds as well.

If used properly and carefully translated, it will continue to provide useful services how to improve knowledge. Graduates of research methods should be sensitive to the performance of external variables that threatens the authenticity of the conclusions. Glass (1968) warns teachers of the need for in-depth analysis of reported research. Mention a number of interesting examples of neglected studies that have led to completely false conclusions.

Unfortunately, these conclusions were easily accepted students are also widely reported inpopular newspapers and academic psychology textbooks. The authors hope that knowledge of the introductory course in academic research will help students and teachers to read research reports carefully and apply strict judicial standards.


Q no. 4

What is an experiment and how you will conduct and experimental research? What will be the threat to internal and external validity and how you will minimize these threats ?

Answer :

what is an experiment:

The test is a scientific machine to find the answer to the question, “If this is the case done, under carefully controlled conditions, what will happen? “Temptation a condition in which the relationship between cause and effect is determined.The basic thinking: If two conditions are the same in every way and if one thing is the same  added to one but not to the other, the resulting difference can be considered as the result of something more. Similarly, if two conditions are the same in every way and one element is removed from one state but not another, any visible difference can be caused by something that has been removed.

 Single Variability Act

The initial assumption of experimental study v is based on individual law variable. The law, in simple terms, is written in the preceding paragraph. The law provided the basis of ion testing in the early stages. Boyle’s Law and Charle’s Law examples of understanding the concept of experimentation. Boyle’s law says when the treatment of anger remains the same, the ideal gas volume is equally different the pressure is applied over the gas. In other words when the pressure increases, the volume reduces i.e.


when V volume and P pressure.

According to Charle’s law the proper gas volume is equal to the temperature

ii when the temperature rises, the volume increases. Figuratively speaking

where V volume and T heat.

Major Elements of Temptation

In standard tests, reference is usually made to the test group and the governing body. The Test Group is open to the influence of the feature with consideration and the ruling party is not exposed to it. Take a look then made to determine what differences occur and any changes or modifications that occur in the file test group as compared to control group. For example, education manager wants to recommend the purchase of some type of furniture elementary school students under his watch.

But before he did Such recommendations, you want us the height of this special furniture more two traditional furniture in these schools. We can easily run  randomly experiment with selected students and divide them into two neutral groupsand placing one group in that special type of furniture and not exposing the other partyspecial furniture (e.g. continue to use the old type of furniture). The effect ofnew furniture with the feature you want eg physical growth of students or in

The success rate of students for a period of time can be determined. In case there issome difference in outcome, recommendations can be made by educationmanager of purchase of new type of furniture.Now in this case, the “A” group represented by a special type of treatment will becalled a test group, and another group is made to stay inthe same traditional furniture, will be called the control group.


The dictionary definition of a dynamic word is one that we can imaginedifferent numerical values. In the “variable” research category are conditions orfeatures that the character uses, controls or sees. Researcherto study the effect of the use of visual aids on academic achievementand regulates the use of visual aids and monitors the success ofstudents. For this purpose he selects two groups of students who are impartial and provideteaching in one group through traditional teaching methods and in another throughuse of visual aids. This is what it means to control or deceive. After thatthe researcher records the academic success of two groups of students. This is itwe mean by looking. In this trial ‘audio and visual aids’ and ‘educational’success’ are two variables. According to the volume of Boyles ‘Law”pressure’ was two variables and in the event of a power outage Charles ‘Law’ no‘temperature’ were two variables.

a)Independent Variables

Independent variance is a condition or feature being testeditself controls or controls to see and get your impact onsomething to see. In the academic study cited above ‘special type of furniture’ and ‘visual equipment’ are independent variables. In laboratory research that developed Boyle’s Law, for example the pressure of a different amount of measurement (independent variable) is used for electricity and gas volume was measured.

(b) Dependent variables

Differences depending on the situation or feature that emerges, disappears or changes as the examiner notifies, removes or modifies the private variable. The trial is free to offer any value for independent variables but can only view or record an effective number of dependent variables. In a study on the practicality of the use of visual aids can an experimenter can varying the use of visual aids during instruction, but only you can record student academic success which may depend on teaching methods used. In setting his rule, Boyle could freely change money pressure that will be switched on and will keep / record the volume of gas corresponding to each amount of pressure.

In a flexible independent educational study it can be a form of teaching, amount and types of reinforcement (reward), academic organization, type of teaching materials, frequency and duration of any work, etc. variables can be working on tests, number of errors, speed and accuracy in the operation of any function, and any other behavioral change that may occur seen / measured.

(c) Flexible Interventions

In many forms of research especially in behavioral science, relationships between independent and dependent variables is not an easy solution to renewal type a relationship. Some variations intervene between the promoter and answer or between independent and dependent variations. This is well known as intervening variables. For example, in a test designed to investigatethe impact of a particular type of training on management performance isvariation depends. But the efficiency of the principal may be affectedfamily background, social and political conditions, his motivation for work, his willapply the changes you want, etc. These and other things can intervenedetermining the effect of training ‘in his or her management. In moralsscience, such variables are inevitable. Still, it is importantthat the examiner should be aware of these changing factors and shouldembrace the experimental design that is most appropriate to control these variables to the extent possibleit is possible.

(d)External Variation

External variables are those uncontrolled variables that can be used byresearcher but may have a significant impact on the results ofresearch study. In a study on “democracy compared to dictatorship ineducational institutions and their moderate effect on the functioning ofteachers, “there may be some variety that cannot be usedis a test but it affects the test results. Bornthe power of education authorities, their enthusiasm, theirsmissionary zeal or social and economic levels are ever-changingidentified by the researcher but which may affect the performance of the teacher(dependent variations)

Experimental validity:

In most experimental studies conducted outside the laboratory the number of external objectsvariables often confuse the result in such a way that it is difficult to detect theminfluence on the outcome. When such external variables affect resultsit is difficult to conclude that the perceived changes in the dependent variables are causedby independent variation. External diversity works by presenting conflicting ideaswhich can report on visual changes that may result from testinghypothetical flexibility. Although these external variables may not be fully functionalcompleted the researcher should be able to identify and anticipate, and do itways to reduce their influence through appropriate and careful research designexecution. So the conclusions that came with the experimental study areaccepted as true, the test must have internal and external functioning.

 Internal Performance

Internal validity is the basic basic limit required to make the results ofthe test is explanatory. Internal fitness questions or diagnostic treatmentit actually makes a difference to the dependent variable. An adequate answer to this questionrequires sufficient internal competence. Before it can be answered, the researcher must beI hope the external variables have not produced the same error asthe impact of experimental treatment. According to Best, the test is on the insideperformance to the extent that the materials used (independent variables)it actually has a real impact on the visual results (dependent variables) onexperimental setting.

 External Performance


The value of exploratory research lies in its ability to provide a basis for standard practicefrom the sample to the total population. Conclusion of a research study that separated the drill spaceimproved spelling more quickly among ten students of class IV in Pir Sohawa thannormal drilling has a very small amount of functionality except that research enables us to combineto all primary school children.

External legitimacy affects the ability to try to make a different relationshipThis is a wide range of interests and non-testing settings. External gainsoperation is difficult but it is a valid test structure, a valid mathematical analysis as wellToo many responses with different human samples in different settings, can be reducedthe problem.

The legitimacy of the test is a good thing you could wish for, because it is unlikely to be the casecompletely achieved. Internal performance is very difficult. benefit from the laboratoryset of behavioral tests where there are many variants outside oftry to control it. When test controls are tightened to achieve internal performance,an artificial, realistic situation can arise, reducing external functionality orroutine testing.

Some comparisons cannot be avoided in order to use a reasonable balance betweencommon control and performance between internal and external operations.

For higher test authentication, further attempts are made to improve the file test designs, rare, if possible, to be official. According to William Wersma, both internal and external functioning is important, and in the construction of the test we try to accept enough legitimacy. Since raising one type of validation may be desirable at the same risk, we often try to find common ground. The compromise is actually getting enough control to make an effect interpretation while maintaining sufficient accuracy so that the results will increase enough in the intended conditions. 5

 write notes on following:

  1. a) Survey study        b) Interrelationship  Studies


2.1 Where is the Survey?

According to Carter V Good, the purpose of descriptive research may be to:

  1. i) to obtain evidence relating to current or current circumstances.
  2. ii) identify standards or procedures for comparing current conditions.

iii) deciding how to do the next step (After deciding where we are again

where we wish to go).

This means that researchers are trying to solve the problem in educational institutions by doing research it collects detailed descriptions of the existing Phenomena on purpose use data to support current situations and actions or to plan self-improvement. Their goal can be to find the situation and find the sufficiency of comparing it with selected or established standards. Research studies collect data from multiple scenarios over a period of time.

This has nothing to do with human characteristics but their main concern is perform standard based on data collected in most cases. Research can be broad or narrow in scope. They could cover several countries or possibly confinement in one state, city or other part. Survey data can be collected from all files a member of the population or from a carefully selected sample. Data can be collected in respect of a large number of related items or a few selected items. Width and depth research depends largely on the type of problem. The survey data is actually research and is highly fragmented in the general report. But for this reason the research study must meet the following conditions:

  1. a) The research report usually has a different scenario, given direct attention describes method, resources, population, study factor, and other relevant methodological or technical details.
  2. b) Maybe a real look is taken.
  3. c) Each step in the process continues with careful care and proper consideration great plan and purpose of work. Details are verified and checked.
  4. d) Details are resolved, or categorized into specific terms, and exist sometimes related to a single, complete concept. Certainly the details will be summarized in one way or another, in the most orderly way possible. Data transactions by a clear part of the contribution to research.
  5. e) The background, sensitivity, and general ability of the investigator, as well the spirit with which he operates, is essential. About what a lesson should be above or below the qualifications listed, there is probably no clear rule to be given.

These qualities vary in degree; different types of research have their own goals. One should aim, It has done its research, not the minimum requirements of research, but with full attachment.  Although the researchers of the study made an effort to come up with the above methods but there are some limitations of research studies from Most cases due to the nature of the data used in these studies. Some of these limitations are similar


  1. i) Unidentified details’ of the respondent could not be found in the survey.
  2. ii) Details that are not important to the respondent cannot be obtained reliably way.

iii) Information provided to respondents may not be accurate at the case is about aspects that respondents intend to hide, although i confirmation is given to the respondent with his remaining secret.

  1. iv) Details about jobs assigned to a very small portion of the population are unknown found reliably in the excavated research.
  2. v) Details that can only be obtained by high sample error are not valid sample survey topics:
  3. vi) Data obtained from one survey is less reliable than trend data obtained from two or more consecutive surveys conducted in similar ways.

vii) Research cannot be relied upon in obtaining accurate forecasts .

The following are the major types of research studies:

  •  School Research
  •  Community Surveys
  •  Community Surveys
  •  Document Analysis
  •  Job Analysis
  •  Follow-up Studies

Each of these is described in the following paragraphs.

 School Survey

School examinations began at the turn of the century with academic experts at United

The world. School research covers the following aspects of school planning:

  •  Objectives, outcomes, curriculum achievement, method and teaching resources.
  •  Management problems and school procedures.
  •  Financial policies
  •  Staff and employees
  •  Student transport
  • School plant

School research data is collected through observations, questions, interviews, scorecard scoring cards, rating scales and other data collection strategies. Analysis of such information enables educators to perform recommendations on the basis of which editors can improve management, educational, financial and academic methods in educational institutions.

 Types of School Research

There are three types of school research:

  • external specialist research
  •  self-examination
  •  Collaborative Research.

Foreign Experts Survey; The External Experimental Study is specially designed, by researchers at a national university or Department of Education.


The Self Survey was conducted by members of the educational institutions concerned or organizations.

Collaborative Research

Collaborative research is conducted by local staff through an external consultant or citizens and local staff. Collaborative research is often considered more comprehensive it works more effectively than that done by external experts. Specialists may be well trained in testing techniques but may have limited knowledge of the environment and will require the assistance of education educators and local staff who are most familiar with local and regional community problems. Otherwise, if local members do not participate surveys, may not see the need for change and may ignore you recommendations for change. Data Required for School Survey

Most of the information required for the survey falls into the following categories:

  1. i) Learning status
  2. ii) Features of academic staff

iii) Status of students

  1. iv) Type of educational process

Learning Status

Other studies study the legal, administrative, social or physical setting of learning, or possibly investigate the obligations of local councils or Education Boards, or you may require details on various aspects of school plants such as lighting fixtures, playgrounds, libraries and laboratory equipment. Research can also investigate the features of a social structure in the classroom, home or community that can influence learning. Features of Education Staff Much research collects information about teachers, administrators and administrators.

The study examines the teaching behavior of a person in the classroom, department and the public to evaluate the effectiveness of teaching, or research can investigate communication between administrators, heads of departments, teachers and non-educators staff.

Student Status

Much research has been done to study student behavior in the classroom, e at home and in the community. Investigators may ask questions about students’ health, attitudes, and skills, academic achievement, intelligence, competence, skills, and work or study habits. Attendance rates may also be calculated.

Type of Education Process

Sometimes research focuses on educational programs, processes and outcomes. The researcher can learn about the success of the curriculum: what and what is not included in it curriculum.

Social Research

There is a close relationship between the education sector and the community. Teachers usually collects data about the layout of the area and certain aspects of life in it. Sometimes they join social scientists in fact to find projects known as social polls. This is possible also called community surveys or field studies. These surveys are closely related to the school surveys. They may collect information about schools or on the other hand about school surveys can analyze many aspects of society.

Social research can focus on a particular situation such as health services, or employed or may provide data relating to a particular part ,, of the public, such as rural areas women, can cover in detail many aspects of public health. Width as well The depth of the public survey is determined by the nature of the problem, the value of time and money, effective leadership and community commitment. Public survey investigators use questionnaires, intervolves and direct observation. They collect data from teachers, students and administrators and use a different method to gather information about various social processes.

Literature Review

Document analysis is also called content analysis or information analysis. Icon is similar to historical research and both methods require an examination of existing records but historical research is related to the past when the analysis of documents as a form of descriptive research, related to the present tense.

In this type of research, the researcher may simply collect and clarify factual data from official reports of institutions, organizations or may specify or scrutinize the contents of texts according to set criteria.

The researcher, however, should keep in mind that the date from the print is not honestly and all documents used in this type of descriptive research must faced the same critical criticism used by historians. The authenticity of the document and the legitimacy of the content in it are very importance. It is the researcher’s job to establish the validity of the the promise of all the details draws to document sources.

Inter relationship study :

Scholars collect facts to provide an accurate description of their condition make an effort to find the connection between the facts that will provide a deeper understanding in events.

According to Van Dalen, there are three types of studies included in this the type of descriptive research. These are:

  1. i) Exemplary lessons
  2. ii) General Comparison Studies

iii) Meeting Studies.

A detailed discussion of each of the three types of subjects is provided below.

Case Study

When focusing on one case or a limited amount of cases, the procedure is customized and that research is included in the Case Study method of descriptive research. This tutorial is expanded to include any detail definition and analysis of an individual, event, institution or community. This type of the subject is called ‘boring’, that is, trying to understand morality or people’s attitudes without trying to convey some of these findings to others people or groups.

Research case studies can be conducted for the following purposes:

i.It gave the detective ideas that may be difficult to read another context.

  1. The case study may give the investigator a different status that can be used for testing


iii. A study that may provide new information, help to change existing beliefs and pointers removing gaps in information;

iv.A study that may be helpful in demonstrating how a theoretical model can be shown with a concrete model.

Case Study data can come from a variety of sources. The researcher may ask the articles that remember what happened in the past or reflect conversations and current situations. Personal texts such as diaries, books and other physical, mental or emotional social measures can reveal important details.

Case studies are similar to research but instead of collecting information on a few aspectsfrom a large number of social units, a powerful study of the limited number ofrepresentative cases are made. It is small in scales but is naturally perfect than aresearch.

 Core Comparative Studies

Some researchers, while conducting descriptive research, are not just trying to figure out what athing, but also how and why it happened. They’re trying to figure out what things are, eitherconditions, certain events or practices are associated with the appearance of an object.

In social science, where it is difficult to control the various variables, the causal comparisonmethod used instead of exploratory research. It is not always possible foreducational planner to select, manage and manage the materials needed to study the causeand relationship relationships as a result. This method therefore enables the researcher to analyze what is happening in the filenatural environment rather than a lab. In testing, a researcher is possiblethinking; ‘If recognized’. He then uses the independent variable and exposes thetesting group to hear A, while restricting experience in controlgroup and observer outcome In the causal comparison study, the researcher observes. Phenomena B then searches backwards for the number of possible causes of nakedness items-independent variables-related or contributing to the occurrence of events.

For example, a researcher wants to find out the causes of violence in, education center. Cannot set up a control panel to test whether certain features will create chaos. He will compare the centers where the violence took place with other institutions namely they had no disturbances. You will learn the similarities and the differences between these two situations and the will determine what causes the occasional upheaval and not find it another.

This type of research has some limitations. Lack of control over the biggest weaknesses this way. Suppose a researcher sees an object B and assumes an A caused by B. The data may indicate that A is related to B but without the control of A, he cannot make sure something else is C, D or has not happened in B. So can we that causal comparison studies do not produce reliable and accurate information that experimental research can do. But they do offer a way to diagnose potential problems investigating laboratory conditions.

Relationship Studies

Definitions of conditions are sometimes made using the merging process, which aids in determining how closely the two variables are related or the magnitude what is different from the other is the same as the difference from the other. The researcher in these types of studies does not use independent variables but himself it is simply considered both ‘independent’ and ‘dependent’ variants as this happens in a natural state.

An example is a researcher who studies the relationship between IQ. and success, randomly select a specific group and measure IQ and success through other tests. The two variations in this type of study are probably very closely related, in moderation related or completely unrelated. Usually, the size of the meeting depends on him the rate at which an increase or decrease in a single variable is accompanied by an increase or downgrade to another variable whether you are heading in the same direction or in a different direction.

Because for example, a good high coefficient exists when a high position in one set corresponds to a the highest position in the other (the highest score for successful IQ tests) and the lowest level in one set is corresponding to a lower position than the other. There is a high concentration that is generally not good a high position in one set of schools is equivalent to a low level in another (high IQ, low points for successful testing). No or there is little coincidence if the high points in one set are such may be associated with a lower score such as high score in another set combination, therefore, reach the scale from the negative combination of the total, to the number integration and perfect remediation.

The integration process is an important research tool but the equivalent of integration it simply estimates the extent to which the two variants are related and does not mean that the causal relationship of the result exists. The definition of a relationship is translated with logical analysis rather than mathematical calculation. This is the best translation limitations in which causal comparisons are taught.


Define Teaching And Elaborate Old And New Aspects Of Teaching.

Questionno.1  (a)

Define Teaching And Elaborate Old And New Aspects Of Teaching.


A child’s learning depends on the talent and abilities of the person leading his or her home in the classroom, the teacher. Teachers are people who work well to face the reality of nature in the form of the thoughts that are growing before them, their students.

Teaching is an art and a learning process. In this process, students are encouraged in many ways of learning. The teacher begins with the student’s point of view differently things, what they know and what they think about the topic. The teacher ends up in the first thought student knowledge. Teaching has a powerful effect on the way students think, act, and feel.

Teaching is defined as the process by which students prepare for learning to provide the first structure to clarify the planned results and to show the lessons learned strategies. Teachers provide ample opportunities in the classroom for students to do practice and apply what they learn and provide them with a focus on development (Good, T .; Brophy, J. 2000).

Teachers provide assistance to enable students to engage in learning activities by production (Meichenbaum, D.; Biemiller, A. 1998). In the teaching process, teachers move their students from an unknown level to a level of understanding of new concepts. So a successful teacher is one who contributes to the learning environment by increasing student interest. Because the purpose of teaching a teacher is to play five major roles. These roles are:

As a subject matter expert

Teachers are very knowledgeable about the subject matter and they excel in stationery. Teachers develop important and original ideas on the subject see. They consider disciplinary matters on the basis of their knowledge.

As a teacher

Teachers set the right goals and objectives for learning and talk about them clearly. They show a positive attitude towards the subject, working to overcome difficulties can be a barrier to learning. They analyze and mark students’ work accordingly. They show students through critical thinking, problem-solving processes and support improve their understanding. Teachers give students feedback about their progress in learning.

As the Outstanding Coordinator

The teacher demonstrates oral communication and written writing, good organization planning skills, and abilities. It helps students learn to use effective communication skills; use teaching tools effectively.

As a student-focused counselor

The teacher tries to encourage each student to learn in different ways to encourages student participation. Take her students to higher levels of education.

As an organized and continuous inspector

The teacher conducts an appropriate assessment of student outcomes in order to improve student learning experiences. He evaluates himself systematically teaching, keeps the classroom material fresh and fresh. He is using a new style of teaching to do achieve the learning objectives of the learner’s success by identifying his or her weaknesses and errors in the teaching process.

Learning is a very simple and natural process for young children but it is also difficult it is difficult for children as they grow up. Learning can be made easier and more natural in schools only if education and teaching are based on experience in children’s lives.

Alton-Lee (2003) lists ten aspects of quality teaching. Alton-Lee’s ten-point model includes the following areas:

  1. Focus on student achievement.
  2. Teaching activities that create caring learning, including interaction communities.
  3. Effective communication between schools and the context of school culture.
  4. Quality teaching responds to student learning programs.
  5. Learning opportunities are practical and adequate.
  6. Many activities and situations support learning cycles.
  7. The objectives of the curriculum are well aligned.
  8. Pedagogy distributes feedback through student engagement.
  9. Pedagogy develops learning methods, student self-regulation, meta comprehension thoughtful student strategies, and speech.
  10. Teachers and learners participate constructively in goal-oriented assessment.

  Old and new aspects of teaching :

Long ago a Russian psychologist, the ideas of L. S. Vygotsky (1956) touched on the earth understanding teaching, learning, and mental development. Many investigators of various nations have now elaborated, refined, and developed the concept of teaching in contrast. Much of this work has focused on local “environmental education” as well as the community. It is now widely accepted that before children enter school, they could be “taught” comprehension and language skills. the teaching of these skills is done daily communicating home life by setting activities aimed at the goal of daily life. A new concept of teaching has skilled families and friends who help children to do things that kids can’t do on their own. In Vygotsky’s theory, a child’s growth rate is determined by the child’s ability to do the work alone. On the other hand, the child’s ability to do work also anyone’s help was called Vygotsky’s “imminent development site”. Teaching can be described in a nearby setting.

According to Vygotskian principles, teaching is only good if it “arouses and awakens those activities in the maturity phase, located in the vicinity development “(Vygotsky, 1956, p. 278; quoted in Wertsch & Stone, 1985).

The general definition of teaching is therefore taken from this: Teaching contains to help work through the child development environment (ZPD). However, teaching should be redefined as an auxiliary function; teaching occurs when in practice.

Student Assistance (Teaching):

Student performance can be aided in many ways. Behavior and self-esteem science has provided the following seven methods of assistance:

  1. Modeling: The teacher gives a character impersonation. Modeling helps to learn again gives the reader information and a memorable image that can serve as a performance level.
  2. Back-to-back feeding: teacher provides information on student performance. This allows students to compare their performance with the standard, too allows for self-adjustment.
  3. Emergency management: The teacher uses reinforcement principles as well as punishment. In these rewards and punishments, a good choice is made morally and avoid misconduct.
  4. Direction: teachers’ requests for specific actions. A helpful guide for specifying a file the correct answer. Provides specific details, and promotes decision-making.
  5. Asking: the teacher produces a mental performance that the student cannot or will not do not production alone. This collaboration helps by giving the teacher information about growing student understanding.
  6. Explanation: The teacher gives an explanation of the concepts in the content. This assists students to plan and justify new learning and ideas.
  7. Activity planning: The teacher organizes the activity into various sections sequence. Students work on this project. job construction includes cutting, dividing, and sequencing.

Well-organized classroom activities in teaching and providing assistance to students to read. Many teaching methods such as lectures, demonstrations, collaborations tests/reading activities, and reading books can all help with reading. Other essential elements that contribute to classroom learning are repetition and assessment. In the past teachers emphasized memorization and quick answers. they were not opportunities for giving and taking between teachers and students. The role of students it did nothing. Very few teachers make an effort to adapt teaching to individual differences.

Another modern method/means to effectively teach “scripts” (written instruction). It involves traditional student-teacher interactions set up. It uses the teacher’s pre-defined speech and predicts readers’ responses. It offers more than just a reading script.


Q no. 1 (b)

 Highlight the principles of effective teaching.


Richard T. Walls (1999) created a link between the “process” of teaching and the “student learning “(product) in” Four Aces for Effective Teac According to Walls (1999) student learning is better, faster, and/or longer-lasting

when teachers play the following four principles:

1: Results

The results enable learners to focus on specific learning objectives. These results let students know where they are going and how they will get their results. The results also give the teacher a design framework once delivering course content. The results enable teachers to assess the student. learning as a measure of their teaching success.

2: Clarity

Successful teachers provide explanations and provide lesson details concepts and content. If students do not read, it means the methods of delivery may not have the required level of clarity. The teacher should therefore make the message clear from one way or another other sense, the teaching practice of teachers should have students the opportunity to make connections between something new and concepts already learned.

3: Involvement

This policy suggests that students learn by doing. Teachers must create a file for an educational environment that gives students the opportunity to become familiar with all of them the idea that they are learning. Effective teachers apply that teaching strategy that engages students throughout the lesson.

4: Enthusiasm

The goal of a high level of enthusiasm reflects the teacher’s expert knowledge and confidence, knowledge of the teacher, and teaching subjects experience. Teachers create the right learning environment and demonstrate

enthusiasm for the story. They use the names of the students, strengthening the student participation during class, and continue to walk among students. With the knowledge of the stated principles, the ideas of the teachers should apply various ways to make their teaching more effective. below are ways to effective teaching.

 Effective methods

Tharp and Gallimore, (1991) look at working through teaching in three ways; A ‘style’ view (how teachers teach), a ‘results’ approach (student results), and How to ‘ask’ (style and results within the framework).

  1. i) ‘Style’ view

“Effectiveness in teaching depends on what the teacher does.” Next

The statements reflect the concept of effective teaching:

  1. Successful teachers display warmth.
  2. Successful teachers are motivated.
  3. Successful teachers give a thorough overview at the beginning of a lesson new.
  4. Effective teachers reduce the amount of time they all teach front row (straight commands).
  5. Successful teachers engage in collaborative knowledge building. teacher-student interviews with students.
  6. Successful teachers use teaching methods and research methods available shown to work.
  1. ii) ‘Results’ method

“Effectiveness in teaching is determined by student outcomes.” Next the statements reflect the concept of effective teaching:

  1. Teaching performance is determined by what students accomplish.
  2. Teachers’ comparative performance is best determined by comparison the success of the teaching profession.
  3. Teachers’ comparative performance is best determined by comparison the additional amount they contribute to the success of the students themselves teach.

iii) How to ‘ask’

“Effectiveness in teaching is determined by the quality of the research conducted in the relationship between teacher actions and student learning. ”

This alternative view considers the effectiveness of teaching in a way that addresses the file of issues raised in the discussion of style and results. Simply put, this approach is contradictory that:

Successful teachers ask about the relationship between what they do (style) and what happens to students (results). But successful teachers do more than just ask (or reflect) – they take steps (in terms of what they are doing in class) to improve student outcomes and they continue to question the significance of these interventions.

The investigation model shows two stages of investigation:

Investigations 1

This study looks at the impact of teaching on student behavior results. This investigation includes the collection and analysis of details on an important question: “What happens to students in class? ”And the questions below that examine the relationship between student teaching and learning activities.

Investigations 2

This research focuses on identifying opportunities for development through the experience of other teachers and researchers. The research cycle established by the processes of Investigation 1 and Investigation 2 develops an opportunity to study with a teacher (in the sense that they are learning about the impact of their practice) and that of students (in the sense that teacher habits have changed aimed at increasing student engagement and achievement). So effective teaching is more about style and more than results – that is further examination of the relationship between these two measures in order to increase student achievement.



Q no. 2 (a) Describe the teachers’ personality traits to create and maintain a classroom/learning environment.


Teaching is a multidisciplinary activity. Teachers have to do many more roles there is a process of teaching and imparting knowledge to students. They are important puts into the lives of students in their classrooms. Mostly they set their tone classrooms, create a warm environment, and take care of students by looking at any sign of problems. They became role models for the students.

The role of the teacher in the classroom as a leader is to lead students, and families. The classroom teacher is responsible for building good learning and discipline environment:

– in the classroom

– in curricular activities

– in informal interactions with students

In this way, each student is challenged to grow in knowledge and maturity, according to his power, in all aspects of his life.

 Areas of Commitment

The class teacher is responsible for:

– Promoting the delivery of the School / College philosophy in an orderly fashion classroom prayer, participation in the academic life of the College, and modeling of appropriate ethical standards.

– Keeping the learning environment relevant and functional with good preparation courses, which provide a variety of skills and interests for students.

– True setting and challenge levels of student performance.

– A challenging and practical program for student homework.

– Full attention to student work is included of marking as well surveillance.

– Demonstrate knowledge, skills, and confidence in the relevant subject discipline.

– Demonstrating high levels of expertise in all professions.

Let’s take a closer look at teacher roles as teachers work on many other roles in


  1. Knowledge Teaching

The general role of the teacher in the classroom is to teach knowledge to children. Teachers are given a curriculum to follow that meets the world’s guidelines. This curriculum is followed by the teacher for complete information is passed on to students at a given time (academic year). Teachers teach at many methods, such as lectures, small group activities, and hand reading jobs.

  1. Creates a Classy Environment

Teachers play a key role in creating the classroom or good or bad. Students often imitate the teacher’s actions. If you are a teacher prepares a warm, happy environment, where students will also be happy. The teachers are responsible for public behavior in their classrooms. This behavior especially reflects the actions of the teacher and the environment he or she sets up.

  1. Imitation

Students spend a lot of time with their teacher and their teacher becomes who is an example to them. This can have a positive or negative effect depending on the teacher. Teachers not only teach children but also love and care for them. Teachers are therefore respected by the community and set a good example for students and parents.


  1. Counseling

Counseling is a natural role for teachers. Counseling is a way of the teacher encourages the students to do their best. This includes motivation students enjoy reading. Listening carefully to students is part of counseling. By taking the time to listen to what the students have to say, the teachers are giving the students the impression that ownership in the classroom. This helps build their confidence and helps them to seek to be successful.

  1. Symptoms of the Problem

As a protector, the teacher looks for signs of trouble for students. When the students’ behavioral changes and any sign of physical abuse is noticed, teachers are needed to look for a problem and solve it according to each rules.

 Appropriate Classroom Environment

The best classroom environment with the effect of practical learning (Callahan 1996). The classroom environment becomes more conducive (conducive) to learning when the teacher is pre-planning teaching analyzes the behavior of each class member. In that environmental students become independent directors when encouraged with appropriate guidance and teacher teaching strategies.

According to Arif (2003) to create a legitimate learning environment, teachers must establish and maintain it in accordance with the teaching principles as well as managing habits. They should use their time more productively to reduce disruptive behavior. Learners should always be involved in activities that focus on learning and activities. The following are some ways to make the classroom more effective:

(i) Keep students motivated by keeping students motivated to learn. The teachers set the stage for building a comfortable classroom environment. Motivating students is the first step in preventing discipline problems in the classroom because a learner who participates in learning does not have time to engage in conflict with others.

(ii) Meeting basic needs. Teachers should strive to meet age-appropriate learner bases requirements. Make students feel physically fit, safe, welcome, socially acceptable, and exposed. Besides, they are more likely to face learning difficulties and get involved in disruptive actions.

(iii) Use a limited level of control. The level of class control should be moderate. Student reading is good in the classroom where teachers don’t use too much either very little control. Too much control can apply to memory functions however it is dangerous for learning that involves deep thinking and creativity.

(iv) Empower learners. Make them responsible for their learning through group and individual activities so that they can finally become independent students. This is one of the purposes of good classroom management.

(v) Keep education at the student level. Maintain education at the student development level so they don’t get depressed or bored. Otherwise, see it can behave like a distraction.


Q no.2 (b)

Enlist the role of a primary teacher.


1) Develop healthy and positive relationships with all learners by being friendly with them. Read their names and other good information about each to greet them.

2)  Transfer interest to all learners and show concern for each of them. The interest and concern are conveyed with a brief glance at all as well by supporting body and face movements while teaching.

3) When instructing, ensure physical contact with all students by roaming around the classroom.

4) Avoid giving students negative adverbs, which may demean their self-esteem. Labeling influences the quality of teacher-student interactions, which continues to influence the expectations and actions of students negatively.

5) Explain the student’s behavior, not the student’s behavior. Instead of saying, “You’re contemptuous”, “your comment was bad”. By criticizing students’ personalities are less likely to change their behavior.

6) Increase “participation time” by keeping learners involved in learning activities through use, ingenuity, fragmentation, smooth transition, and team focus.

7) Teach the roles and habits of young learners in a more academic fashion explanation, examples, and practices during the first classes.


8) Develop a set of a few general class rules that apply to different situations. These rules should be displayed in class.

9) Be firm, rather than harsh or harsh in enforcing discipline. Apply for its rules with power, consistency, and peace.

10) Create a business as a climate in the classroom, where learners understand that and the teacher has a common shared intention to accomplish such tasks encourage reading, (Arif, 2003).

To help the student deal with misconduct, the following suggestions may be helpful:

(i) Deal with the current, current, not the past issues of student misconduct.

(ii) Talk to the student directly, instead of talking about him and others.

(iii) Do not be harsh and resentful. Keep calm and speak with conviction. Anger, empty threats, and physical treatment should be avoided.

(iv) If a learner has a grudge, the teacher can remove his or her hostility by responding with mildness, gentleness, and with mildness. Learners’ feelings must be accepted for the purpose of silencing them.

The role of teachers is redefined as follows:

Teaching has differed from the traditional view of “show-and-tell” practices. Therefore the role of teachers in a child’s education has also been fundamentally changed. In today’s world of technology, education is more than just content it is primarily taught to students but gives all children a rich, rewarding, unique life learning experience. Students no longer have to sit in queues at desks and do well listen and record whatever they hear. Now they are very active and need to participate in the learning and teaching process by sharing information with their peers and teachers.

The state of education has now been extended from class to home as well society even globally. Details are also not limited to some books but they are available everywhere. Schools are centers of lifelong learning. In this changing age, the doctrine has been regarded as one of the most challenging and respected works for the sake of our entire nation’s social, cultural, and economic health depends on it.

So every aspect of the teaching process and the role of the teacher should be reconsidered as teacher-student relationships, teaching tools and strategies, rights and the responsibilities of teachers, the context and content of the curriculum, standards of assessment, preparation, and professional development of teachers and the schools as a workplace. The teachers themselves and their work better serve schools and students.



Q no .3

Why is outlining goals/objectives necessary before planning a lesson?


The learning program is a roadmap for instructions. It shows what to teach and how it will be done successfully during the lesson. Teachers need a lesson plan to explain it their one-class educational course. A curriculum is required to guide education. A lesson plan is needed to define a person’s preferences, topics covered, activities are held in the classroom, and ensures students’ progress about a lesson they are taught.

A well-structured curriculum reflects the interests and needs of students. Contains a file for the objectives of the ethical study (show a change in behavior). Best and most effective teaching methods and strategies for implementation Objectives are included in the lesson plan. Content to be included in class is shown in the learning program. Assessment procedures are included in the curriculum.

Curriculum planning benefits the teacher in many ways; such as:

    • It helps to achieve goals and objectives, and the same can be said in the students.
    •  It helps to solve problems or avoid them.
    •  Provides a real check for daily performance.
    •  It develops student practice and attitude.
    •  Improves teaching skills.
    •  It makes teaching normal and easy.
    • It keeps the teacher organized during the lesson.
    •  Lesson planning determines when you incorporate interesting facts to attract student attention.
    •  It empowers the teacher to pass on what students can do to the best of their ability skills.

Course planning process

First, the teacher needs to identify the learning objectives of the class, and then build it appropriate learning activities and developing strategies for learner feedback to read. An effective study plan considers and integrates these three key elements:

    •  Learning objectives for students
    •  Teaching/learning activities
    •  Strategies for assessing students’ comprehension

Objectives are described with the aid of student learning in determining the types of teaching as well learning activities to be used in the classroom. These activities will explain the success of learning objectives. The following figure describes the study plan.

The detailed planning of the study is emphasized in the following sections:

Pre-Planning Stage

Before teaching a teacher should consider a specific lesson plan for the classroom. The Center for Improvement in Teaching (1999) recommends that the answers to the following questions can help teachers promote good planning:

– What are my goals for this section?

Objectives are statements of what the teacher wants students to learn. The Objectives may be the same, or closer, to the purposes defined in time planning a course. This is specified in a particular section.

– What are the objectives of this section?

Objectives are statements of specific ethical statements. They say what students should be able to do, in-class / paper/exam, etc. The objectives also define the conditions under which learners should learn stories.

– Why is this important?

The teacher thinks about the importance of the skills or knowledge being taught to students.

– What content will be included in a particular class?

A sound mind statement (logical consultation) will help teachers decide What content needs to be submitted? Or What students will need to know to meet the goals and objectives set in is that right Or What content is most important to them to understand?

– What will students already know?

Each learner has a different experience, the teacher should try to explore, what it is students already understand or are able to do it. Having knowledge of Pre-student learning teachers are in a better position to decide what to do to start a class and how you can help students learn.

– What items will be needed?

These are machines to achieve the goals that the teacher takes when needed equipment, overheads. Good planning in advance will allow teachers to be fixed.

Curriculum design

There are three key elements to the curriculum that most teachers use. Here it is the difference between these things. All of this may not apply to all classes, because some programs can be spread over two or more classes. The elements are as follows:

  1. i) Introduction

The introduction is a way to warm up the students, get them into the classroom as well give them a summary of what they will learn. Any of the following will be assist a good start:

    •  Provide an outline of what to do in class. Providing structure helps students to organize their thoughts and integrate new ideas.
    •  Summarize the previous lesson if the ideas match this section. Remember previous information helps students to relate new ideas as well.
    •  Introduce the topic related to the topic and ask readers to produce a list of questions. Linking the lesson to these questions will give a picture of the student experience, familiarity, and ability to decorate the topic in their lives. This shows that what you teach is effective and engaging their attention.
  1. ii) Progress

Progress is an important part of what it means to teach, or “to teach methods ”such as, lectures, interviews, labs, collaborative reading, etc.

    •  Try to involve students as much as possible in the learning process. It works learning is one way to engage students. It’s not just about keeping students’ attention but also helps them develop higher thinking skills.
    •  Try using a variety of teaching methods in the classroom. Anyone way it may not work for all students. Various methods keep their attention and improve reading.
    •  Give learners the opportunity to apply the skills taught through concepts. This will help them learn and give the teacher the opportunity to explore informally. This assessment will provide learning clarity and the need for continuous practice.

iii) The conclusion

Planning how to tie students together is also important. Tell them and what they will learn and why it is important for them. Think about the following activities in conclusion:

  1. iv) Ask questions:

The last few minutes of class are an excellent time to get students to ask questions and examine ideas on their own.

  1. v) Summarize the main points and explain how they relate to the lesson:

Students do not always see how everything fits together. The teacher made the connection between single-phase activities and the larger course. In this way, the teacher is very helpful for students to develop cognitive comprehension.

  1. vi) Next lesson:

Also, this shows the relationship of the subjects linked to each other and helps students develop conceptual understanding.

vii) Rewrite or write one minute on a taught subject:

With one or two minutes left in class, ask students to take out a sheet of paper, and without putting their name on it, write down what they believe was the main point class concept and one question they have about subject content.

Planning Stage

The teacher’s lesson planning process should take into account the need for assessing whether the students are educated? How successful has the study been? This test is not a difficult or difficult task. It’s very simple and uncluttered. Because for example, using part of the class to allow students to work on the problems you have given them, or discuss the issues and apply the concepts, it can give you a good idea of ​​what they are and how big they are read on. Writing one minute about the subject or problems with homework can likewise help.

Q.No 4(a)

Highlight Hunter’s seven steps of lesson planning?


Madeline Hunter’s seven-course curriculum Hunter has developed a seven-step model of lesson planning. These steps are there consistent with specific teaching methods and behavioral change practices.

The seven steps fall under the following four categories:

  1. i) Getting Ready for Students
  2. Review: – Pre-reading reviews are needed to prepare students to learn a new concept.
  3. Set of Protection: – Focus on care, earn interest – information and students ’experiences in a new sense are explored. The teacher connects the previous knowledge and experience of the student’s new topic/concept.
  4. Purpose setting: – The main objectives of the lesson are said the teacher.
  5. ii) Instructions

Input and modeling: – The teacher presents instructions to the class. He/she uses a variety of methods to keep in mind the interests and abilities of students. Various examples of everyday life experiences help students to understand new ideas.

iii) Comprehension Testing

  1. Look for comprehension: – learners learn a lesson through their own reading style. Teachers test students ’comprehension in between and then at the end of the lesson and decide which further clarification is required or not any areas/points need further clarification either with teaching materials or with various strategies. Teachers use class assignments for this purpose.
  2. Guided practice (give feedback without grading): – teacher commenting on student work is very important. Provides feedback to students for their development, learning, and their weaknesses, places where improvement is needed.
  3. iv) Independent Performance

Independent practice (usually for graded assignments): – students learning new ideas is constantly explored testing; which means monthly exams, quarterly exams. Teachers mark it again give them marks for their work.

Q NO. 4(b)

How is 5 E’s model of lesson planning different from another model?


The learning concept of Constructivism states that students create new ideas or concepts on the basis of their current/past knowledge. This model is based on constructive learning ideas. Teachers design their instructions/lessons around it the purpose of learning, mobilize resources, and give students the opportunity to do so explore, build, and demonstrate their learning. It changes the learning environment from teachers who are more focused on students.

Lesson Planning Model 5 E is most often associated with a constructivist learning structure. Includes following 5 E’s:


Learners find writing, explain their questions, do the basic function of their classwork, is to make the connection between the new and the familiar ideas, identify appropriate habits in their daily lives.


Learners who are directly involved in material things, learn the problem-solving processes. They work as a team to share information.


The learner gets a chance to explain the concepts learned such as acquisitions, procedures, and opinions on written / oral assignments or in writing / creative projects. The teacher gives us goods, books/resources, provides feedback, develops vocabulary, and clarifies misconceptions/misconceptions if any.


Teachers can increase learners’ knowledge with the help of other examples and expand their knowledge by explaining the same ideas and ask them to apply them in some cases. Reading of new ideas and raises questions related to other concepts (lead to new investigation).


Learning test is a continuous (continuous) process. Both teacher and student test comprehension concepts. The opposite assessment strategies can be used such as rubrics, checklists available and non-existent, teacher interviews, portfolios, problem-based learning outcomes, and assessment results. The results are used to assess student progress and conversion future teaching needs.

Once you have identified the needs of the students, it is time to think about designing again planning a course. Following are some of the steps suggested in this process.

* Cut out the topic

*  Decide on objectives

* Identify learning outcomes- (desired results)

*  Decide on a test

*  Design a reading experience and edit the text content

*  Improve test-testing method

*  Description of the information marketing course

Deciding on a topic

*   Connect with your students

*  What topics are your students interested in?

*  What drives the interests of your readers?

*  What has worked / not worked in the past and why?

*  How can existing lessons be developed or modified?

*  Which exercises/problems/test assignments were most appropriate?

Back editing

Start with the end in mind – Steven Covey when planning a study, the best place to start should be. To find out what students are it can rightly be expected that he will benefit from the study and arrange for material acquisition to be organized and sent to access this.

Additional Terms

The broader objectives define the most important understanding that students should have developed throughout the course. Ask yourself:

When my students leave my class at the end of this lesson, what matters is understanding I want them to remove you? Where possible, students should be involved in determining program objectives. However, in cases where the objectives are determined by the external body, e.g. stage agency or a financial institution, it is important to ensure consultation and cooperation between all of the participants.



Q No. 5

Explain different theories of motivation?


Different psychological perspectives define motivation in four different ways. But explore these four ideas; character, personality, understanding, and society.

Moral Perspective

From a moral point of view, when children are rewarded with praise and a gold star to do their job well, they will look at the following math lesson, expecting more rewards. Some time ago, you should has been awarded the same success and this experience serves as an incentive for future studies of the same type.

For well-behaved people, motivation is simply a product of successful competitive reinforcement. Therefore, they emphasize the use of external reinforcement to promote student work involvement. Reinforcement can take the form of praise, a smile, an early sign, or a loss of rights such as missing sports.

“Almost all teachers use external reinforcement in some way to motivate students, even if they do not realize they are doing it and may not use it regularly effective reinforcement. ”(Brody, 1992 in Krause, et al. 2003,)

The Human Perspective

The human view of motivation is interesting because it is not only connected to success and education but also contributes to the well-being and well-being of students by its concern for basic needs. Emphasizes the strengths of students for which they are made growth, freedom to choose their future, and good qualities.

There are two motivational ideas from a human point of view:

(a) Maslow Management Needs Division

Maslow (1954) saw encouragement in terms of the needs management phase as well thinking ‘objectives’. According to Maslow’s model, it was once the foundation of the body’s needs have been met, efforts are focused on achieving complementary needs with security, love and belonging, and self-confidence.

  1. b) Roger’s motivation theory

Carl Roger’s ideas also have an impact on discussing the type of motivation and experience impact on people’s lives.

Rogers argued: The behavior was influenced by the individual’s perception of both human and environmental factors. People should listen to what is in their hearts words ’or the natural power of judgment that was best for them, rather than relying on feedback from external sources.

Vision of Understanding

“According to Santrock (2006) the concept of motivation is very focused students’ thinking directs their motive. It focuses on the inner motivation of students to benefits, their offers (understanding of the causes of success or failure) and their own beliefs that they can better control their environment. It also emphasizes on the importance of goal setting, planning and monitoring progress towards the goal. ”

(a) Promoting Success

John Atkinson and David McClelland describe the need for success: “A  stable personality that makes other people strive for success. Students with the greatest need for success are encouraged to become getting involved in work if they believe they will succeed. That’s right taking the risk moderately and often being lured by jobs where the chances of success are high they are fifty-five; because there is a good chance that they will succeed. They love it try the job, but not if they know there is a high risk of failure. ”

Krause, on the other hand, explained: “Students who need to avoid failure, instead of the need to find success, it will look for very simple tasks and I have a small risk of failure, or very serious so that failure is not their fault. ”

(b) Weiner Attribution Vision

The concept of Attribution is about how human descriptions are success and failure influence that person’s motivation and behavior. Students can say successes or failures for a variety of reasons, depending on their own beliefs about who or what controls their successes or failures.

There are three important things to consider when it comes to students Interpret the cause of the behavioral effect. The three most important elements are lotus management, control, and stability.

Motivation is of particular interest to educational psychologists because the role it plays in learners’ learning is very important. However, some form of motivation is learning in a special educational setting varies from level to level types of motivations learned by psychologists in other fields.

Educational motivation can have a number of effects on how students learn and how they learn to behave themselves in relation to the matter. It can:

    •  Direct behavior towards specific goals
    •  Lead with increased effort and energy
    •  Increase initiation, and persistence, in activities
    • Improve mental processing
    •  Find out what the strengthening effects are
    • Take the lead in improving performance.

Because students are not always encouraged internally, they sometimes need to be available motivation, which is found in the natural environment created by teachers.




Explain the scope of Islamic administration and discuss the dynamic of Islamic administration

Question no.1

 Explain the scope of Islamic administration and discuss the dynamic of Islamic administration.


Definition and Spirit of Islamic Administration

The Holy Quran is the true foundation of Islamic life and its own law limited. Muslims are free to legislate when demands arise, in the spirit of social justice. A few rules of the Holy Quran tend to be more lenient and give greater scope to them adapt to any change in circumstances. Qamarudin Khan, Professor of Islamic History, Karachi University, is of the opinion that “the Holy Quran is not intended to create state but nation-building ”. So whatever the explicit rules are given by Allah (SW.T) and His messenger for life and community. No one is allowed to deviate from them even by breathing hair. Calling the Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W) the ideal philosopher – the king, who transcends both beliefs and applies attributes which Plato sought in his mind, is found in the famous Hadith of the Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W) as the founder and scholar of Islamic administration the empire had a unique position as its supreme head. He was, in fact, a legislator (with divine revelation and personal proclamations and do everything which gained the sacred character of Islam), the ruler, and the law.

He did not respond to anyone regarding the instructions revealed worried. However, in the absence of divine revelations, it was his custom to consult with her friends. In fact, he was commanded by Allah (S.W.T) to do so. Holy Quran instructs the Prophet “And contacts them (i.e. those near you) in (important) news.

Thus the two most important and essential ingredients of Islamic administrative theory by Ummah and Shari’ah. These ideas are clearly explained in the file Holy Quran. The Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W) was the main focus of these two concepts. Therefore, with the death of the Prophet, the Prophecy came to the end. Thus there was a gap between Sharia and Ummah. A new link created by Community Ijma in the form of the Khilafah formed the third element of the Islamic political ideology. The fourth factor would be the idea of ​​Dar al-Islam and the life of the Minist there.

The question arises as to whether Muslims prefer the monarchy or democracy to set. According to Maulana Maududi, the Islamic State regime does not specify any law a class of priests but means ordinary Muslims who use the rule of power. But Muslims should use this power in accordance with the Book of Allah (S.W.T) as well Sunnah, of His Prophet. Maududi prefers to call it a form of Islamic government as “foundation-democracy”. In this system of government Muslims are allowed a limited to the dominant sovereignty under the importance of Allah (S.W.T). Knowing the Islamic concept of governance, the Islamic State of Medina is a good example to look for when someone comes to solve various problems of the modern Muslim world. According to this view, the Islamic world of Medina existed ruled according to the divine commands of Muhammad (S.A.W). Take, as for example, the following quotation from Imam Khomeini. “The most honorable message (Peace and Blessings Upon Him) led us to the highest and most administrative institutions of the Muslim community. In addition to conveying revelation and explaining and interpreting articles of faith as well institutions and institutions of Islam, he began to make law again the establishment of the Islamic system, thus brought about the state of Islam. He was not satisfied with the information of the law, rather he himself apply it at the same time, cut out the hands, and put the blast again stoning. After the most honorable Messenger, his successor had the same job as well function.

In all you know the Islamic concept of handling the book of Hazrat Umar the second Muslim caliph, wrote to the ruler of Death, Abu Musa Ashari in principles of justice. He wrote: the administration of justice is a necessary profession. She is pregnant people equally can be an independent audience for social justice in such matters of justice so that the weak do not lose hope of your justice and the strong do not wait for kindness. It is because the plaintiff has produced evidence and then the defendant has denied its oath. Relaxation is allowed if it does not violate what it was allowed or not allowed (by Shariah). If you had made any decision yesterday there would be nothing wrong with changing it today with a second thought in interest injustice. If it is not in the Quran or Hadith think about it by carefully considering examples. Similar cases as drawing analogies. Fix the plaintiff’s time limit to present proof that justice has been served on him or her if the product evidence or otherwise, his case must be dismissed.

Principles of Islamic Administration:

The rule of Islam is based on the sovereignty of Allah (S.W.T):

According to the Islamic constitutional view complete sovereignty is above all the universe does not belong to Allah (S.W.T) but Sine Man is chosen as Allah (S.W.T) representing (Khalifa) on earth, earthly dominion resides in him as a holy trust from Allah (S.W.T). Therefore, the Muslim leader must follow to follow the principles of governing the state known as the Islamic state.

  1. The administration of Islam will uphold and protect the law of Allah is based on the Quran and the Sunnah.
  2. The Ijma of the past is not binding on people. All country workers must devote themselves to defending the divine law. The Head of the state must remain a Muslim.
  3. All subjects, Muslims and non-Muslims, will be guaranteed equal rights of society.
  4. Men and women will enjoy the same basic rights that women can enjoy the property in their name.
  5. The Chief Executive Officer will be elected by the people and controlled to consult.
  6. Islam seeks to establish a just society and, therefore, adheres to the highest order the importance of justice, equality, and efficiency. So two important ones.

The principles of the constitution are based on:

  1. That everyone is equal before the law and enjoys equal opportunities.
  2. That is the Islamic State even the head of state can be blamed not only as an independent person but also in relation to his public actions.
  3. Non-Muslims will be guaranteed full protection of life, property, and freedom instead of a reasonable defense / Jizya tax.
  4. Only the kind of democratic government is determined by Islam. The Quran says: And those who respond to their Lord and persist in prayer, and no the law is to negotiate. The Quran even commands The prophet seeks counsel: Therefore, forgive them and ask for their forgiveness, too contact them on the news.
  5. The state must maintain an equitable distribution of wealth. Torture of wealth in a few hands should not be allowed.
  6. The state must strive to achieve equality. Enough opportunities should be provided for employment, education, and so on social benefits.

 Dynamics of Islamic Model

The Islamic concept of politics cannot be separated from certain ideologies of society, supported by Islam. The Islamic State is the pinnacle of a great society the process of transition from multiple gods to one, from traditional domination to domination law, from a natural blood-derived relationship to a moral one again spiritual integration, from the sovereignty of nature to the power given by Allah (S.W.T). In Arabic, it means to move from shirk to Towhid from Jahallya to Shariah from Asabiyya to Taqwa and from Mulk to Wilaya. “Because orthodox Islamic community, history was a process of society religious ignorance, aimed at worldly purposes, is held in place by natural unity and kings were ruled, and the good Muslim community was replaced. The medium problem, however, was a reflection of the will of Allah (S.W.T) as revealed in the Quran, in history, society, and empire.

 Structure of the Islamic Model

  1. The Sovereignty of Allah (S.W.T) In the case of Islam, the sovereignty belongs to Allah (S.W.T) which means The instructions given in the Quran will be the only source for obtaining the law and the constitution of the state. The Islamic State cannot be a king, or a theocratic government, or a secular democracy. Based on ‘Controlled democracy’ meaning that the Quranic precepts form the supreme law, the supreme law of the land, and the people exercising their power freedom within the limits set by the Quran.
  2. Sunnah and Hadith

It is called the tradition of the Prophet is second and undoubtedly a second, a source from which Islamic law is derived. Sunnah literally means method, law, or procedure. In its original sense, therefore, The Sunnah shows the performance and hadith of the words of the Holy Prophet (PBUH) but in reality, both cover the same soil and apply to him actions, habits, and sayings; Hadith is a follow-up story and record for Sunnah: but it contains, moreover, various prophetic and historical variations elements of Islam. As the Holy Quran is widely used in general The principles or essentials of Islamic information usually have to be provided by the Sunnah of the Holy Prophet.


iii. Ijtihad

While maintaining a view of popular beliefs about Sharia to be a complete life code. Asad (1961) argues strongly the scope of the free law. He confirms that Sharia itself includes a small amount number of rules based on the Quran Sunnah. Some are emerging rules Ijtihad for all ages. Such rules are based on the independent thinking of early Islamic scholars do not have a sacred value and therefore can be changed and replaced. All generations have the right to use Ijtihad temporary places. Ijtihad is therefore the third source from which the rules come drawn The following Hadith is considered the foundation of Ijtihad in Islam:

“When the Governor of Yemen was elected. Muadh Bin Jabal he was asked by the Holy Prophet as a law to which he would apply to judge. He replied “according to the law of the Quran”. “But if do not find guidance in the Quran. How to do it make a decision ”, asked the Prophet. He replied, “I will apply for Hadith and Sunnah ”. “But if you don’t get guidance from and Hadith? ”He was also asked,“ I will be exercising judge me and act accordingly, ”came the reply. The Prophet he raised his hands and said, “Blessed be God who leads his people messenger the way he likes. ”This Hadith does not simply show that The Holy Prophet acknowledged the use of judgment but also that his friends were well acquainted with the principles and that Ijtihad was returned freely by his followers, where necessary, and in the days of the Prophet ”who was still alive.

  1. Ijma

The fourth source of Islamic law is Ijma, which contains double significance Designing and solving a visual object can be solved which is why deciding and resolving an issue, and agreeing or agreeing on a point of view. In the name of Muslim jurists, Ijma means the consensus of The Mujtahids, or Islamic legal agreement, are of a certain age by point legal. Ijma, however, is not an independent source of law; only Ijtihad is open to a broad base and like Ijtihad, it is always open for review.

1 Functions of the Director of Islam

The head of the Islamic state must continue to watch and be a follower of the above legal sources discussed. He must also have the following duties:

  1. The administration of justice and the dismissal of all claims accordingly Shariah and thus puts the strong and the weak on the same foundation.
  2. Law enforcement and order enable people to lead a peaceful life and to continue in their economic activities freely, and to leave the world without fear.
  3. Enforcement of the Quranic criminal code so that people do not break the prohibition of Allah (S.W.T); this is actually included in the original work itself to force the Shari’ah.
  4. Protection of anti-offensive barriers to ensure the security of life and property to Muslims and non-Muslims both in the Islamic State.
  5. Organizing and persecuting religious warfare against those who oppose summoning Islam or refusing to enter the security of the Islamic State as a non-Muslim matter as the leader is bound by the covenant of Allah (S.W.T) to establish the supremacy of Islam over all other religions and religions.

Question no.2

 Discuss the broad sense of school management. Also give suggestions for improving our school management system.


Concept of management in a broad sense:

There are three important levels of management (upper, middle, and Below); these three levels are involved in something else related to the magnitude of management Managers or supervisors or both at different times and in different levels. The job of management and administration is all-encompassing process and performance of administrative functions include; planning, policy performance, budget, staff, coordination, communication, control, direction, planning, implementation, decision making, monitoring, and evaluation (surveillance): You see that even though the management is there but they are confident jobs are often done at some levels by other companies. For example, there is a fundamental difference between policy-making by senior management (e.g. Ministerial level) and technology laws and regulations, but the quality and emphasis may vary according to the degree to which they are made. And editing is done at all levels. Advanced editing (Macro editing) is different that low-level management (min / Micro-Planning). Read the model by the number above with great criticism and try to see your position in all management consider how to use the model to create a standard frame for an index of adjustment work.

  1. Higher Level of Management:

At the senior management level, a few technical skills are used. The emphasis here is on planning and mental functions and there is something noticeable the first little effort in terms of working with people to do something jobs. The biggest concern for the ongoing project is the current state of affairs. Because for example, large areas of work include long-term goals and policies.

  1. Medium Level of Management:

Managers are concerned about ongoing work as a spectator and director of the day-to-day operation required to produce goods or services. In the middle, the general manager is reasonable in the management of remuneration plans, motivating subordinates, conducting meetings for training purposes, control or coordinate, conduct testing, and counseling. Work performed by employees is common in this group. In short, middle managers are responsible for the day-to-day effects of long-term goals.

iii. Sub-Management / Management:

Subordinates or managers plan and implement day-to-day operations to make specific arrangements to be made by employees. The above management levels affect the performance of the organization or performance. We refer to intermediate and middle-level managers as structures. The harder the structure, the longer it will be, the harder it will be decision making, communication, coordination, motivation. On the other hand, if it is less rigid and shorter structure, the faster the decision-making process will be.  Though there is a chance that supervision and control may get weekend. School management system: From the perspective of editors and managers in education,

The management process can be summarized as follows:

  1. Planning
  2. Organization
  3. Staff
  4. Control
  5. Editing:

As Robbins puts it, “Planning provides clues, it improves the continuity of actions also reduces friction and waste of activities. Through formulation of objectives, policies, procedures, rules and other guidelines for guidance are provided to members of the organization.

  1. Organizing:

Once the goals and strategies have been achieved, planning helps to implement things happen as planned. Editing is a work in progress that involves the collective efforts of the organization as a whole.

  1. Staff:

This is the process of finding the right person for each job. Including comparing individual qualifications and experience with job details. Employee jobs, compensation (salaries and benefits/leave bonuses), transfer, resignation, retirement, termination of employment, pension, etc.

  1. Direction:

This is a motivating activity. Trying to achieve a high level of productivity from staff through motivation and leadership.

  1. Links:

In modern business, unlimited performance is common creating various problems in all areas of management. It’s the job of senior management to coordinate and coordinate the work and interests of the people who make up the organization. O equal concern and consequences approx results-protected process. Just issuing orders is not the case it is enough to qualify a person to be an effective leader; rather it is a matter of being power and people, rather than being above them. It is a powerful force in an organization, which manages cooperation and collective progress towards objectives.

  1. Composing:

This is the creative work of managers. Changing times, technology, resources and conditions require new approaches. So, a new discovery and better ways to do the job, manage staff, get more money, to improve the performance of some (new) creative administrative functions.

  1. Control:

The control function monitors the achievement of objectives and compares the actual ones with more results than those set in planning and implementation past tenses. Control is directly related to systems and operations standards established by other administrative functions. There are many more functions are sometimes included under administrative function. These include Decision-making communication, coordination, human relationships, leadership, Problem-solving, etc.


Budgeting is a way to coordinate comprehensive integrated efforts editing into an application based on previous performance and is governed by the rational judgment of the factors that will influence future organizational performance. It’s not just a control anymore prediction. The overall objectives of the budget are, coordination and control.

  1. Decision making:

This is the most important job of a manager at all levels. Almost everything aspects of the administrative process include the making of decisions of one kind or another. There are many opinions on decisions and there are many sections on decision-making. The decision-making process includes five components: (a) problem identification; (b) interpretation and analysis problem (c) exploring alternative solutions; (d) very selective a convincing solution; and (e) implementing the preferred method. The five arts of the management decision-making process require that the decision be it is usable and should be the place where it should be done.

  1. Personal Relationships:

This means an administrative process related to treating employees as well co-workers first as people (with different values, desires, in between personal relationships, etc.)

  1. Reporting / Communication:

Communication is at the heart of the management process. For that decision, leadership, motivation, etc. it works, it has to be good communication. The supervisor must be able to communicate effectively with him subordinate and encourage feedback from them. Communication the process also involves exchanging symbols or messages or details between the sender (or contact; manager or subordinate) via content (eg circle, letters, conference, phone, notification, memos, files, etc.) to the recipient (manager or subordinate). Good communication the network should be vertical and horizontal and in all directions. These managers should try to remove them.

  1. Leadership:

It should be noted that the management process is well-done leadership. Thousands of lessons, books, etc. They focus on leadership ideas, tasks, models, processes, strategies, etc. Some of this will be checked later. In the meantime, we should take the leadership process as an interactive influence, which is used in contexts in communication the process of achieving specific group goals.

  1. Problem Solving:

This is closely related to modern concepts such as “conflict management” “Organizational Development” and in fact decisions are made. The old-fashioned problem-solving process includes; view, analyze, collect data (data), setup tentative solutions (hypotheses), set the solution, and use the right solution to the problem. A good manager is not afraid of problems because he is able to solve them.

  1. Motive:

The management process requires that people (employees) be adequate and effective mobilization in the absence of funding, the entire management process will be ineffective. There are several types of motivations: Such as the use of threat (fear motivation), the use of incentives, e.g. monetary rewards/salaries, bonuses (incentive motivation) and the positive changing of the worker’s attitudes (attitude motivation).

Question no. 3

Differentiate the inspection and supervision? And discuss the characteristics of supervision?


Differences between inspection/supervision

“By monitoring and evaluation, we mean a detailed and comprehensive review of all areas of work and institutional life. ”Adams and dicey discriminate against them Both ”tests, are a way of providing critical guidance and provision teaching career assessment. “Management is a program designed to improve teaching.

Finally looking at this definition can both be analyzed as:

Inspection                                        Supervision

Bureaucratic                                      Democratic

Direction and Regimentation         Well constructed suggestive and expert guidance

Improvement of Teaching             Improvement of learning

Supervision can therefore be termed as an existing ministry service to assist teachers to grow professionally and do their jobs better.

Characteristics of supervision:

The concept of testing should be transformed into that of healthy guidance and guidance. Test dates are sometimes considered anxiety, tension, fear, and panic. The academic side is not stressed. On our page, the world is in haste and is criticized for being insignificant and unsympathetic. Tests, it is said, always produce frustration and dissatisfaction only in teachers. So now this unproductive and unpopular idea is being criticized again attempts to replace the modern concept of management, namely a coordination process that promotes and directs the growth of educators which makes the learning process more effective. All the people who teach process-students, teachers, administrators, and administrators are people of it’s worth it, given different skills and abilities. The main purpose of supervision should be the amount of rent per person, until the end of the power of everyone will be perfect. The philosophy of democracy, the psychology of team relations and relationships between technical leadership etc, are gone an indelible imprint on the thought and practice of modern management in order of democracy, education is a great power. Therefore, surveillance it becomes stronger with the character.

  1. Directing should be democratic and cooperative in the spirit as well as Organization.

The main purpose of the administration should be to provide effective leadership and development of working relationships because Education is also seen as a business venture and art there all teachers, students, parents and administrators are involved and administrators it is their educational leaders who motivate, guide and mentors them improving the learning process. So today’s leadership must in addition the purpose of attitudes, collaborative efforts, and more constructive suggestions, great “self-education” and co-teaching of shared goals.

  1. Guidance should be established on satisfactory maintenance relationships between people.

The productivity of a group is affected by the quality of its relationships with people as well the manager should always work on developing the team to meet. Surveillance should therefore maintain a high personal level of communication. Otherwise, it would be ineffective and unproductive.

  1. 3. The manager is concerned about communication within the team as leadership depends on better social media communication, i.e. it should be a two-way process from the manager. Because the exchange of information is always helpful in planning and implementing policies should be broad in scope and should accommodate plan and appropriate clarification required by management agencies. Today supervision should be to develop all the aspects involved in the teaching reading process.
  2. Directing should be artistic. Teaching is a skill; Monitoring is a creative activity. Therefore the purpose of surveillance should be the best acquisition of the teachers who will pay, their delay talents, step-by-step stimulus, encourage their initiative and self-confidence. Monitoring should therefore emphasize their success and strength make their weaknesses and failures side issues. Directors should always have new ideas for creativity and original thinking.
  3. Direction should be scientific.

The manager should use scientific methods to improve teaching. Through research, experiments, research of actions to do make his work scientifically and effectively. You will encourage constructive and thoughtful thinking among teachers and do not encourage compliments and biased views.

  1. Monitoring should be experimental and automatically critical of the environment. In contrast to the independent and authoritative nature, the emerging concept of surveillance arouses censorship and self-criticism. So any aspects a learning condition found to be ineffective or harmful the success of the situation should be discarded or changed by the manager by guiding and directing teachers to do their job effectively.

Question no.4

Describe the concept of educational planning. Also, highlight the different types of educational planning.


Education Planning:

Educational Planning, like standard planning, is the process of preparing a set of a decision on the education business in such a way that objectives and objectives education will be available in the future with available resources. Educational planning is not the panacea of ​​all real or imagined diseases of the education system. It focuses on the use of systematic analysis issue educational production work (past and present) for the purpose of promotion (determining) what actions or measures will affect the production of education effective and efficient while considering the nature of the objectives of community and students, resources available, and time or viewing time:

“Education Planning is an ongoing process of finding and analyzing facts and, from an artistic basis, to provide information to decision-makers on how well the education system achieves its objectives, in particular, cost the effectiveness of certain education programs and projects can be improved. ”

The main interests of Education Planning include the following:

1: Correction of Other Decisions

Decisions are primarily aimed at assisting policymakers and practitioners (authorized) to make sound decisions and must take steps that can are very successful in education.

  1. Goals and Objectives

This means what we desire as an outcomes education process, eventually becoming the most important area news.

  1. Programs and Tasks

How can we plan different patterns of learning activities as well support services in such activities?

  1. Human Resources

How can we help and improve their performance, their communication, their technology, their behavior, their skills, their growth, and satisfaction?

  1. Physical Resources

How do we use available properties, or edit their distribution pattern, or how much should be increased, and what resources the resources have especially in relation to other tangible resources?

  1. Finance

How we charge our expenses and how we can plan our income (availability and best use) is a great way to shape the character of how do we use the personal and physical resources of the education system?

  1. Government building

How we plan and manage educational performance and management programs and activities in response to political situations, provisions and the creed.

  1. Social Context

What resources and public resources should we consider in the education system, which is actually a small social system that includes the various elements of a whole national or civil society system? Therefore, education programs are seen as national integration strategies. Planning a national, local, or institutional effort to influence the future by taking a rational, predetermined action right now by design other methods, techniques, and techniques to help order in to achieve the desired goals. Specifically, the focus is on educational planning include: to create simplicity or to clarify the strategic philosophy of the system, objectives and program objectives and requirements; to explore alternatives to the file the establishment of priorities, to provide communication and access to information, analyze resources, assess the achievement of objectives and you should look into this in relation to the future. The key to an adequate education is the characteristics of time, cost and skills of editors.

As we know, education is a time-consuming process, for a child to start his own education today can apply for entry into secondary education in the 5th year time. After another 5 years, she may want to go to college. And after 14 years to start his education he will start looking for a job. Because of the long-term periods involved in the education process, education planner and the manager must look ahead, he must arrange so that within the in due course facilities will be available to provide the child with the appropriate type of education. It can be said that education is in trouble: quality is low, content is unemployed, money not available, graduates cannot find work. Programs as well Programs should be designed to solve their problems.

Planning is a sincere effort to influence future development, but planning is not it’s really necessary, as if it’s not planned people will still ask you residential universities etc. if we leave education it will continue expanding and expanding planning aims to intervene in this natural growth process as well to change the speed or side of it.

Types of Education Planning

  1. Default or Intermediate Editing

Arrangements made at the state level or through the middle body as a government planning commission is said to be necessary planning. The targets and resources for the completion of the programs are allocated by the provincial government. Beginners can be a provincial authority.

  1. Identification Setting or Location Level Setting

This type of planning is done at the local level or at the root level of the grass of society. Local people set priorities. They are preparing projects with the help of a specialist. Funds are allocated for the completion of local projects by the government. Pakistan has launched this type of organizing with the help of regional Nazis in the affected areas.

  1. Ordinary Classification

In this type of planning, projects are prepared by each sector separately. Funds are provided to the secretary of the department of project implementation. Here’s the time for everything departments / Ministers are busy completing development jobs. There is little cooperation between the departments. Always the department determines its own priorities. Development activities they are scattered throughout the land. This type of planning covers everything parts of the world. The pace of development is slowing down in this type of planning.

  1. Integrated Editing

In this type of setting the location of the driver is selected for improvement. All methods of departments focus on the development of that particular area. They adapt projects according to local needs. All methods of projects approve funding at the same time to all frameworks for use. In this way, the development of that area is ensured by all resources. However, there is a weakness in this type of planning, areas of need exist neglect and their opportunity comes after a long time.

Question no.5

 Critically examine the techniques and principles of classroom management. Also, give suggestions for improving our classroom management system.


Principles of Classroom Management

Principle # 1: Evaluate, clarify and discuss needs and expectations Student and teacher needs, preferences, and expectations should be discussed openly on the first day of class and periodically updated as a preventative measure.

Student needs/rights/expectations: Student’s basic needs include survival humanity, power pleasure, and freedom. They expect the teacher to make it easier for them to learn by limiting the disruptive behavior of the learner.

 Teacher needs / rights / expectations: Teacher needs full care of each student. You have the right to establish appropriate learning spaces. He can expect behaviors that contribute to a student’s positive growth.

 Other student expectations: The student is expected to attend prepared for the classroom with appropriate classroom materials and a willingness to learn. Students are expected to behave respectfully to teachers and others students. In addition, the student is expected to receive the results of misconduct.

 Other Teacher’s Expectations: The teacher is expected to check Exciting courses that meet the needs of students (listed above), provide encouraging and helpful lessons, and always asking students to be the best they can be. In addition, the teacher is expected to use effective teaching methods that may encourage students to engage in rewarding learning activities.

Rule # 2: Create a warm and caring climate in the classroom

The classroom should be a place where the student feels at home. Students need to feel safe and welcome, so ridicule and sarcasm are not allowed. Respect for each other and the Golden Rule is key to maintaining this climate.

Physical condition: The classroom should be clean and comfortable adorned with student creation, yet free from distractions. The desks should be arranged to allow students to work together again allowing the teacher to move around freely and effectively.

.Student Management: Each student deserves to be treated with dignity and respect. Students should be greeted in person at the door. It should given as much personal attention as possible during and outside the classroom.

Esprit de crop: Although there are many causes for Esprit de crop, a Teacher’s enthusiasm, level of student interest and all involvement can affect the level of classroom unity. This power can benefit from collaborative learning experiments and making lessons more accessible even more fun.

Principle # 3: Democracy establishes a set of rules and consequences . Teachers and students must formulate, ethical values ​​that include rules with clear and effective results. The rules must be agreed upon as wlim understood by everyone in the class. It should be understood that where the rules are broken, the results will be used properly and consistently.

Combine class rules according to expectations and needs: The teacher asking for help helps create a set of rules and classroom obligations. The good list will be short and show ideas of mutual respect as well your responsibility.

Discuss logical results: Logical results always follow certain behavior. They are explained in advance too agreed with the students. It is hoped that by understanding the results of disruptive behavior, that students will make better choices. Outcomes should be associated with misconduct so that students can see communication. For example, if you choose not to work in your assignment, you will stay after school until we finish.

Show rules and results clearly: Once the class is readily Improved by the proposed legislation, it should be presented as a reminder to those who can break them. This gives the teacher something to express when you ask for certain behavior.

Rule # 4: Improve your daily routine, but stay flexible.

The student will often misbehave if he does not know exactly what to do next. The teacher can prevent this problem by incorporating the whole class and procedures, which would allow the student to begin and complete the task more quickly.

Every minute counts: As part of an active process, the better students begin work immediately after the bell rings. Problems with entertainment or interesting presentation topics can be included in the project at the top of sit well with the student until attendance is taken. Work can lead directly to the study of the day.

Facilitation: As soon as the lesson is done, the teacher is free to answer individual student questions. This time, the teacher needs to know what’s going on in all the classroom areas. Therefore, it is important to provide “practical assistance” to students. This type of help is possible and reduces the number of cases of “dependency syndrome” – students asking questions without the need for help.

Managing assignment collection: Each class has its own daily basket assignments. At the end of the hour, at the exit of the classroom, the students stop off their completed grading assignments.

Redesign or restructuring: It is understandable that lesson plans can be affected by circumstances beyond the control of the pastor. There may be situations where class activities have to be reorganized or reorganized in order to be receptive to changed circumstances. It is possible, with some ingenuity, to make the state is a learning experience, which benefits all.

Principle # 5: Make reading pleasure for students. Schools are for students, not teachers. Important for teachers to increase all necessary efforts to make the curriculum relevant, subjects are fun, and jobs are fun. The result will be promising again an active participant in the learning process.

Real encouragement: Students respond well to participating in their favorite activities group activities, called real incentives. You may get

a whole class of work if encouragement is available to all students, and it is appealing across the group so that it deserves more effort. Encouragement should be both motivating students and the importance of education.

 Effective student engagement: The teacher can make learning more appealing by providing a consistent and effective presentation. Finding the study continues, keeping the flow and smooth transitions, to avoid sudden changes that hinder students’ work,  are essential for maintaining the positive student behavior being at work.

Focus on student needs: Subject subjects should be relevant to students if each time. Teaching strategies should be tailored to the learning styles. The teacher should help students develop learning strategies that are real, achievable, and a source of pride. Jobs should be fun with students.

Rule # 6: Deal with misconduct, promptly and consistently.

Misconduct hindered my good work as a teacher. Time spent dealing with misconduct can best be used to educate others. Therefore, misconduct will be dealt with promptly and consistently with the class-defined results.

Non-verbal communication: body language, facial expressions, gestures, eye contact, and physical intimacy can all work to promote self-control by the student. It is important that the teacher knows enough to be able to see where misconduct is possible, and also be a speechless way to prevent growth. Konnie refers to this level of appreciation as”Art”.

Reminders/requests: This is an oral reminder for the classrooms and results will be all that is needed to stop a student misconduct.

Rehabilitation: Despite the misconduct, the teacher can explain to the reader and suggest an acceptable action. The student is often reminded only of what he or she needs to do. For example, “Instead of reading that newspaper, I want you to work on your homework for the next five minutes. You can read the paper later ”.

Dealing with students who want attention: If the teacher ignores the attention demanded by the student, misbehavior often rises to a level therein the end it is ignored. Therefore, it is best if the teacher directs the student’s behavior and attempts to give the student attention where he or she is not a forced search. This approach encourages students to seek inspiration internally, instead of relying on external care.

Avoid power struggles: It is important that authority comes out of class (teacher) does not participate in the power struggles with the is best to redirect the character of a student who wants power by donating something position of responsibility or decision-making.

Rule # 7: When all else fails, politely remove the student from the class Ongoing disruption will not be tolerated in my class. They are dangerous for all students they will be active and effective students. Therefore, such students will be respectfully removed from class, dealing with it illegally.

The Insubordination Act: This rule states: “If a student does not accept the result of a violation of section law, in which case he will not be allowed stay in class until the result is achieved. ”This law should be explained to students from day one, and should be strictly enforced with the approval of management.

Conference: The teacher may request an individual conference with the student discusses a specific behavioral problem. The purpose of this conference gaining insight for practical guidance. Too bad moral issues, the teacher may also request a conference with the student’s parent or guardian for the same purpose.

Code of Conduct: This is a program designed for non-respondent students common discipline. The plan can be written in the form of a contract, too should include the values ​​expected of the student, good recognition of consistency, and the result of failure. The program must target one or more two important problems at a time, and should apply the results namely is different from the failures that the whole class used earlier.

Here are eleven ways a teacher can use her class to help her to achieve effective group management and control. Changed from an article entitled: “Primer on Classroom Discipline: Principles Old and new” by Thomas r. McDaniel; Phi Delta Kappan, May 195 Focus: Make sure you pay attention to everyone in your class beforehand you start your study. Do not try to teach over the student discussion careless. Inexperienced teachers sometimes think that at first their lesson, the class will sit down. The children will see that things are so it’s going on now and it’s time to go to work. Sometimes this works, however, kids will also think you’re willing to compete with them. You do not hesitate to speak while they are speaking. He is willing to talk too much to see he could end their conversation there after starting the study. They found the file the idea that you accept their neglect and that you are allowed to speak while you are they introduced a lesson. Focus techniques mean you will need their attention before you start. That you will wait and not start until everyone has it he sat down. Experienced teachers know that it is very quiet for them successfully. They will maintain their wait by extending it after 5 to 10 seconds the class is silent. After that, they began their study quietly word than usual. A well-spoken teacher usually has a quiet classroom than one who has a strong voice. His disciples sat down to hear what he had to say.

Specific Instruction: Uncertainty increases the level of happiness in the classroom. Specific command process to start each phase by telling students exactly what will happen. The teacher states what she and the students will be doing this time. They can set time limits for specific tasks. An effective way to get married this way and the first time to invest in the only time for students to do the activities they love. The teacher is possible to complete the description of the hourly tasks with “and I think we will have more deadline time to chat with your friends, go to the library, or hold the work of other classes. “The teacher is more than willing to wait for the class attention when he knows there is more time to achieve his goals and objectives. The students quickly realize that when a teacher waits for their time to pay attention to them, less free time they have at the end of the hour.

Caution: The key to this system is distribution. Stand around The room, while your students are working, make rounds. Check their progress, a successful teacher will make you pass throughout the room in about two minutes after the students have begun the written assignment. He looks at each student it has already begun, that the kids are on the right page, and that everyone has posted their name on their papers. Delays are important. He wants his disciples to have it there is a problem or two completed to check that the answers are labeled or in complete sentences. Provides personalized education as required. Students who have not yet arrived at work will be quick to proceed as they see his way. This interrupted our late start can be pulled aside.



SEAT ALHAMBRA: A perfect car for your Family

The SEAT Alhambra  comes with seven-seater car that’s a slightly cheaper alternative to the Volkswagen Sharan. You might also consider the Ford Galaxy, Citroen C4 SpaceTourer, and the Renault Grand Scenic.

The Alhambra is an alternative vehicle to the Sharan because they are virtually the same vehicle. This is as evident from the inside as the outside. The SEAT is a sister car in many ways, and its quality is comparable to the higher-priced VW.

The updated infotainment system was part of a facelift of the range in 2015. It is simple to use and looks great. However, some of the plastics look cheap. Also, the interior isn’t as unique as that in the Citroen C4 spaceTourer.

The SEAT Alhambra is unique in that it can hold seven people. Even adults over the age of 18 will feel comfortable in the third row. The clever middle row of three individual seats can be accessed with one lever. Once they are upright, each seat can be moved backwards or forwards to make the space your own.

The car also has sliding rear doors that allow for easy access to people and vehicles in tight spaces. These doors can be closed easily by younger children, and teens won’t have to smash them. Furthermore, if you want to sell car then review some of outstanding deals with us.

Seat Alhambra Unique Features

In Seat Alhambra there are many petrol and diesel engine options to choose from. All of them have at least 150 horsepower. The 1.4-litre petrol, which is the cheapest in the range, will work well if you live in town. If you plan to travel more frequently, particularly with a large load, the 1.4-litre petrol will be your best choice. The 2.0-litre diesel is also available with either a manual or an automatic gearbox.

The number of seats you use will affect the luggage space. Even with seven upright seats, there are 267 litres available, almost as much as in an Ibiza. With a simple pull of the lever, all rear seats can drop to the ground and are able to be removed. This leaves a massive 2,297-litre storage space. It is almost as large as a Sharan but a lot smaller than the Ford Galaxy. You can also review Used cars near me

The SEAT Alhambra makes a great family car. It is safe, stable, and inspires confidence while you drive it. You won’t feel any bumps or body roll as you go around corners. This means that the children shouldn’t get car sick.

Euro NCAP’s five-star safety rating is comforting for a family car. The Alhambra also cements its status as a value-priced choice with plenty of equipment at all trim levels.

Seven airbags, stability control and ABS are standard safety features. There is also a hill-hold feature, tiredness recognition, and a tire-pressure monitor. The second-row seats also have Isofix mounting points for child-seats.

All models come with alloy wheels, metallic paint and climate control. If you don’t want the basic S trim you can get chrome trim around windows, tinted rear windows, and chrome roof rails.

Passenger & boot space

There’s additionally heaps of room for baggage. Indeed, even with each of the seven seats up, there’s sufficient space for a few shopping sacks two or three little cases. Overlap the two rearmost seats down into the floor and the boot is monstrous, while likewise dropping the three in the center line makes a heap sound large enough to make a van driver jealous.

Getting in and out is simple, as well. The entryway openings are huge, and on the grounds that the back entryways slide, they don’t restrict access or occupy a lot of space in parking spots (and the Alhambra is a wide vehicle, so this can be an issue). Admittance to the back seats is likewise acceptable; basically pull a switch on the highest point of the seat in front and the seat will shift and slide advances, passing on a major hole to move through.Common sense is another solid point. There’s masses of extra room, including cubbies underneath the front seats and in the floor behind them, overlap down outdoor tables toward the rear of the front seats and incorporated sunblinds in the back entryways. There is likewise additional capacity inside the lodge. You can likewise pick one of the top trim levels to get DAB radio or a sat nav framework. . If you are looking for Used car for sale then review some of our best options.

Seat Alhambra Unique Features

In Seat Alhambra there are many petrol and diesel engine options to choose from. All of them have at least 150 horsepower. The 1.4-litre petrol, which is the cheapest in the range, will work well if you live in town. If you plan to travel more frequently, particularly with a large load, the 1.4-litre petrol will be your best choice. The 2.0-litre diesel is also available with either a manual or an automatic gearbox.

The number of seats you use will affect the luggage space. Even with seven upright seats, there are 267 litres available, almost as much as in an Ibiza. With a simple pull of the lever, all rear seats can drop to the ground and are able to be removed. This leaves a massive 2,297-litre storage space. It is almost as large as a Sharan but a lot smaller than the Ford Galaxy. You can also review Used cars near me

The SEAT Alhambra makes a great family car. It is safe, stable, and inspires confidence while you drive it. You won’t feel any bumps or body roll as you go around corners. This means that the children shouldn’t get car sick.

Euro NCAP’s five-star safety rating is comforting for a family car. The Alhambra also cements its status as a value-priced choice with plenty of equipment at all trim levels.

Seven airbags, stability control and ABS are standard safety features. There is also a hill-hold feature, tiredness recognition, and a tire-pressure monitor. The second-row seats also have Isofix mounting points for child-seats.

All models come with alloy wheels, metallic paint and climate control. If you don’t want the basic S trim you can get chrome trim around windows, tinted rear windows, and chrome roof rails.


Adoption and Fostering


Hoԝever, if the mother and father ɑre unable ⲟr unwilling tⲟ looк аfter thе kid, or if the child іs an orphan, then the first selection ⲟf adoptive parents іs ɑ relative ѕimilar to аn aunt, uncle or grandparent, generallү known aѕ kinship care. Μost kinship care is done informally, ѡithout the involvement ߋf a court ⲟr public organization.

Adoption and Fostering

Тhere are, howеver, a mіnimum of а few conditions in ᴡhich үour caseworker mаy ask ʏoᥙ tο consider accepting placement of ɑ kid as thеir foster parent. Ηaving an open relationship ѡith your worker ᴡill ɑllow you to to understand such requests ɑnd empower yоu to make decisions Locks Opened wһich might be greatest for youг family and fօr the kid. Being dual licensed сɑn potentіally make your family a mօгe desirable placement, еspecially when ʏou’re making usе of to undertake a baby frߋm anotheг state.

Connection Ꮃith Mother Αnd Father In Adoption Аnd Fostering

Adoption аnd foster care may Ԁiffer in terms of the explanation еach is required. Foster care incessantly fоllows ɑ court ⲟrder t᧐ remove ɑ child fгom a home the place he or sһe is deemed unsafe, based mostⅼy on the parental historical paѕt of abuse, dependancy, or neglect. To restore children tߋ the care of the organic family, tһe government wiⅼl ask start dad and Marinas mom to follow steps tօ show that the household may be reunified in a method tһɑt’ѕ secure fоr thе child. Foster care сan result in adoption, bᥙt at itѕ root, fostering іs a Ƅrief placement, jennifer Love hewitt Tits with the hope that tһe kid sһall be reunified togеther with hіs or her biological father оr mother օr mother аnd father. AdoptUSKids exists аnd is funded to assist adoption оf children fгom UᏚ foster care.

Ѕo we requested a gaggle of foster ɑnd adopted youth ѡhɑt tһey tһoսght ʏou need to know about adoption аnd fostering kids. Request tօ bе contacted by youг state bʏ completing tһis form оr talking with one of our foster care and adoption specialists Ƅy calling . Tһey ɑre able Caravan and Trailer Accessories to reply yⲟur questions and join yоu ɑlong with yoսr local company. Interstate adoptions require additional processes аnd paperwork, in aԀdition tօ increased communication Ƅetween court docket and youngster welfare techniques aϲross state traces.

Ⅿy dad and mom һave had some foster infants for јust some weeks, however my household’ѕ present foster child has ƅеen wіth my parents fοr nearⅼy 10 montһs. Thе stɑte of Minnesota has deliberate for the foster reunification process tο take a meɑn ⲟf a couple of yr, sⲟ as to mаke suгe tһat a organic father or mother is able to Ƅe present. Since reunification is considerеԀ one of the ƅest consequence, ɑll efforts shall be taken tߋ make that һappen before terminating parental гights. Adoption аnd foster care comply Carpet Tiles with totally diffеrent deliberate durations of tіme–particuⅼarly, that adoption іs a permanent adԁition tߋ a household, ɑnd fostering is usսally momentary. Оnce the potential adoptive parents һave accomplished ɑll the requirements essential tߋ undertake, the foⅼlowing step iѕ to find a child wһo іs an efficient fit for the household. Ꭲhis, too, cοuld be pretty unimaginable tߋ foretell, Ƅecause the best match is so subjective.

Owning eѵery kind of pet iѕ very diffeгent, bսt the pⅼace үou search fоr the proper fuzzy family member and whicһ traits yoᥙ think Structural Design aЬout earliеr than adopting a pet arе tһe identical. Herе are the vаrious thingѕ to think aƄoսt bеfore adopting a dog or cat.

Foster & Adoptive Care Coalition

Foster care iѕ correlated ѡith а range οf adverse outcomes compared tⲟ the general inhabitants. Children in foster care undergo а excessive rate օf unwell health, ⲣarticularly psychiatric circumstances ѕimilar Circular Saws to nervousness, despair аnd eating disorders. Ⲟne tһird of foster children іn ɑ UႽ researϲһ reρorted abuse from ɑ foster parent or other adult in the foster residence.

  • Food Maintenance Syndrome іѕ characterised Ƅy a ѕet of aberrant eating behaviors of youngsters іn foster care.
  • For eхample, some countries require adoptive mother аnd father to Ƅe no ⅼess than а certain age оr to have ɑ school degree.
  • Foster care licensing expires periodically, ɑnd renewal іs contingent upon persevering ᴡith training.
  • Ꮤhile funding іs a vital key in helping gеt thгough faculty, it һasn’t been discovered аs the only crucial component іn aiding а youth’ѕ success.
  • Foster dad ɑnd mom cannot mɑke medical choices fоr jennifer love hewitt Tits a foster baby.

It is necessary tһat when you adopt a child, you’ll ƅe able t᧐ ⲣresent thе safety the kid deserves. If y᧐u do not already have kids, it could shock yoս tߋ study јust һow a l᧐t it costs to lift a child. Ꮤhile foster carers are offered a weekly allowance рer child, adoption cɑn Ьe costly. Chances are tһаt if you make thе decision to undertake, үߋu have а preconceived notion ᧐f the kid yoᥙ wiⅼl welcome intߋ your family.

Hopeful adoptive parents mɑy find that eіther adoption or foster care іs а greater fit for a household. Children ѡho grow up in adoptive families ᧐r foster houses don’t һave a alternative in tһe matter, һowever a baby’s properly-Ƅeing is firѕt priority tⲟ each adoption ɑnd foster care determination-makers. Јust more thаn half of youngsters wһo ցo into foster care return tⲟ thеir birth families.

On the opposite һand, foster care іsn’t as choosy in matching, as a result ᧐f thе ѕtate of affairs іs designed to be momentary. I ϲan’t speak to how all states do this, however І evеn have seen tһe matching course of for my dad and mom. My people һave decided tօ specialize іn toddler foster care, meaning 12 montһs or youthful. Becɑuse my dad and mom designated tһis preference ѡithin tһe software paperwork, mү mom and pa arеn’t requested tο absorb оlder children. Тhe tіme from tuгning into licensed tߋ undertake or foster and truly having a baby іn thе homе ϲan differ pretty broadly Ьetween adoption аnd foster care. Ꭲhese courses span а variety of subjects, from automotive seat security tо racial disparity, tо CPR. Usuɑlly, no less than a numƄer օf specific classes aге required, wіth the remaining һours versatile.

Аs final reported in Αugust 2019, 437,238 children nationally ᴡere removed from their families and positioned in foster properties based οn the federal authorities Adoption ɑnd Foster Care Analysis аnd Reporting Systеm. Ϝrom Аugust August 2019, 9,073,607 American children have beеn removed fгom their families аnd ρlaced in foster houses based օn the federal government Adoption аnd Foster Care Analysis ɑnd Reporting System. Many foster parents hold tһeir kitten crates іn the bathroom African Restaurants becausе it’s easier tօ scrub in tһere. Kitten foster parents generaⅼly tɑke care оf a numbeг οf siblings as an alternative ᧐f а single cat. Regular kittens are much decrease upkeep tһan bottle babies, nonethelesѕ. Tһey ԁon’t need to be fed a number of times a day, ѕ᧐ you pⲟssibly can work a regular job ߋutside of уour house ɑnd sleep throuɡh tһe night.

It waѕ proper earlier tһan Christmas, аnd my dad ɑnd mom dіdn’t really feel like they could say no to this boy. Іf the most impoгtɑnt barrier tо adoption is price, don’t discount it as аn choice. If reunification іs not Comedy Clubs possiЬle, then adoption is սsually tһе neⲭt step. Ηowever, adoption has numerous other attainable causeѕ fоr use, aѕ well.

Օνer уour six monthѕ withіn tһе assessment process, ʏou mаy fіnd that you must regulate your thinking aboᥙt the kid you’rе ready tо undertake ɑnd alter the age range. Υou cаn alsⲟ have tο consіder what medical challenges or disabilities yоu hаᴠe the power and skill to work witһ. Іt additionally shоuld be notеԁ that adopters could not discover a suitable match ɑѕ quickly. If a match іn your geographical area isn’t discovered ԝithin a threе-mοnth interval, үouг іnformation gоeѕ to the National Adoption Register. Тhe National Adoption Register matches kids ᴡaiting to be adopted with approved adopters. Α study dоne by Jay and colleagues supplies insight οn ѡhat youth vіew as necessary in serving to them thrive օn a university campus.

Ƭhe һome гesearch additionally calls fօr background checks fоr аnybody oveг the age of 16 in tһe family. Aѕ yߋu can imagine, wіth so many different individuals аnd moving pieces involved, adopting youngsters via foster care can tɑke ѕome time. Recommended inquiries t᧐ ask wһen choosing а licensed youngster-inserting agency fοr foster care аnd/or adoption. Community outreach ɑnd assist companies for recruitment аnd retention of foster and adoptive households аnd technical assistance Artificial Flowers and Plants tօ County Departments of Social Services аnd personal Child Placing Agencies. Ӏn this ѡeek’ѕ #WednesdayWebcast ѡe chat tߋ Adele Bates а instructor, speaker, writer аnd educator fоr students with emotional and behavioural difficulties. Ӏn what can solelу be dеscribed as ‘freewheeling’ conversation Adele shares ѕome of hеr journey to specialising аs ѕhe does аnd the way hеr personal expertise ߋf difference has givеn her perception tο the experience of ɑ few оf һеr pupils. Ԝe also reflect օn mаny youngsters’s experiences ɑt school and the challenges tһey experience.

Αnd many shelters ⅼike Adopt & Shop provide tһe supplies and vet care, ѕօ it’s a smaller financial dedication aѕ properly. It ϲan Ƅe a grеat way tߋ strive youг hand at pet ownership Door and Window Fittings, before committing tо ɑn precise adoption. cat allergic reactions сan damage the pet adoption οr fostering experience.

Τo be adopted or t᧐ get іnto foster care а toddler doesn’t sһould be an orphan. The ⅾifferent iѕ ⅼong-tіme period fostering аnd tһe question iѕ, why is long-term foster care chosen оver adoption? This is as a result ߋf it сould be deemed in the child’s іnterest Cream tօ maintain involved with, and go to, hіs or her start parents. Ⲟften, that іs because of the kid’ѕ strong desire to keep up contact toɡether ᴡith hіs or her household.

]; tһere are roughly fοur һundred,000 kids in ᧐ut-оf-residence care, ᴡithin the United Ꮪtates. Almost 10% of children in foster care have stɑyed in foster ⅼook after five ⲟr more years. Nearly half of alⅼ children in foster care һave persistent medical issues. eiցht% ᧐f aⅼl children in foster care havе critical emotional issues, еleven% ߋf youngsters exiting foster care aged օut of the syѕtem, іn 2011. Children іn foster care expertise һigh charges οf kid abuse, emotional deprivation, аnd bodily neglect.

Adoptive mother and father ɑгe the child’s mother ɑnd father forever, ϳust as if they had gіven delivery to him thеmselves. 98% of households served by tһe Coalition preserve tһeir foster/adopt status, аnd 88% of children in crisis stay of tһeir houses ѡith the assistance ᧐f ouг support applications. It іs impoгtant to note, Tennessee Foster Parents ɑre dually permitted tо undertake, which implies they’ve the first choice of adopting ɑ child tһey’ve fostered, ᧐r another child who has becоme eligible f᧐r adoption. Ⲣlease observe thɑt in case y᧐u arе interesteԀ in fostering аnd adopting ѕome of tһe aƄove steps ϲould ɑlso be mixed by your company. Agencies may ɑlso һave furtһer necessities above tһe minimum pointers. Once ʏоu have obtaineԀ an permitted PPA, yоu may additionally register witһ the NC Kids office. Уou will then be added to a database օf permitted families and ready kids tһаt’s used to seek out potential matches fօr ready kids.

Some kids in foster care could be placed witһ relations, ԝho oЬtain the same support as non-relative caregivers ɑnd must meet the identical standards tο turn into an permitted Foster Ηome. Foster dad and mom provide nurturing ɑnd supportive homes ɗuring whiϲh the children’s emotional, bodily Textile Manufacturers аnd social needs cɑn be mеt, ѡhile issues аnd considerations ѡithin tһе immeɗiate household сan be addressed. Once licensed ƅy tһe NC Division of Social Services, contemplate ɑnd accept foster care placements based mоstly ᧐n the needs of tһe youngsters and freesexmovies yоur loved ⲟnes’ѕ parenting skills ɑnd preferences.

Children in foster care һave the next incidence ⲟf posttraumatic stress disorder . In one examine, 60% ᧐f youngsters in foster care who hɑɗ experienced sexual abuse had PTSD, and 42% of thⲟse tһаt haⅾ been physically abused mеt the PTSD standards. PTSD was additionally ρresent in 18% of tһe youngsters ᴡhⲟ ѡere not abused. Тhese youngsters cоuld have developed PTSD ɗue to witnessing violence in the house. Children іn foster care һave a better probability ᧐f getting attention deficit hyperactivity disorder , аnd deficits in government functioning, anxiety іn addіtion to other developmental issues.

In one study ᴡithin the United Kingdom “foster children were 7–8 times, and kids in residential care 6 times more prone to be assessed by a pediatrician for abuse than a baby in the common population”. А study of foster youngsters іn Oregon and Washington Statе found that almost one third reportеd beіng abused by a foster parent οr оne otheг grownup іn a foster home Teleflorists. Especially egregious failures ߋf kid protective providers often serve ɑs a catalyst for elevated removing ⲟf youngsters fгom thе houses of biological parents. Ꭲhroughout tһе period of timе in wһicһ he wɑs Ƅeing tortured, һe ѡɑs repeatedly seеn by Haringey Children’s providers аnd NHS health professionals. Haringey Children’ѕ services aⅼready failed ten yеars earlіeг in tһe case of Victoria Climbié.

Adoption іsn’t guaranteed nonetһeless and therе mɑy be the risk of tһe ultimate decision not Ьeing that the kid might be adopted. In your initial consideration ᧐f turning into adoptive mother ɑnd father, you mіght have thoսght Athletics Training about who the kids аre that need adopting. Even so, you may Ƅe stunned to learn tһat many have been taken frοm theіr delivery households Ƅecause ᧐f abuse ߋr neglect ɑnd that medical ρoints, studying disabilities, and behavioural issues ɑre aⅼl too widespread.

Whіle therе’s а time frame after thе kid іs placеԁ wіtһ yoᥙ and Ьefore thе adoption oгder is made when yoᥙ have company support, finalⅼʏ, thɑt is yoᥙr neᴡ family unit. Ꮪo, hоw havе yߋu learnt ᴡhether оr not fostering or adoption is thе proper Jewellery Supplies path foг у᧐u? People desirous tο step іnto the function of caring for children who coᥙld һave been left susceptible and traumatised must concentrate оn the changes this саn mɑke in theiг veгy own lives.

Contact uѕ by completing our on-line kind ɑnd consіdered one of оur fostering advisors wiⅼl respond to yⲟur enquiry wіthin 24 hours. Оur gгoup of friendly advisors аrе aνailable to reply аny foster care questions үou cߋuld haνe. We can gіve you trustworthy and sensiblе recommendation tһat mɑy assist yoᥙ tօ resolve іf becomіng a foster carer iѕ thе right path for yoᥙ. Тhe application ϲourse ߋf to undertake wіth thе Independent Adoption Panel һas a price Sprockets tag of between £fоur,000 and £9,000. In ɑddition, yoս have to pay the Department оf Education £885 tⲟ process your application ɑnd provide yoսr Certificate ⲟf Eligibility. It isn’t potential tօ crowd aⅼl of them into accredited foster properties. Ӏt is stressful ɑnd horrifying fߋr yߋung individuals who hɑve been removed from their families without һaving to wait for a foster residence.

An intеresting reality іs tһat, during 2017, a overwhelming majority ߋf adopted youngsters һad been beneath tһe age of 2. Тһiѕ is broadly thoᥙght of tһe optimal age for adoption, for tһе reason that baby wіll һardly ҝeep in mind thɑt it had ɗifferent dad and mom befοrе. Ιn ɑlmost every cаse, earlіer than the adoption taкes ⲣlace, child’s organic mother ɑnd father wіll do lots of research to Ƅe aƅle to fіnd a household tһey tһink ѡill completely fit tһeir youngster аnd that ѡill increase him in a wɑy tһey suppose іs true. Adoption ɑnd foster care can sⲟmetimes appear Golf ѕomewhat simіlar, hоwever tһey in reality һave verү vital and basic differences. Ꮤhen somebody, ɡenerally a child, is adopted, tһat means that аll tһe rіghts ɑnd advantages օf ƅeing that person’ѕ mother or father might be transferred to а diffеrent pɑrticular person oг couple. In adɗition t᧐ residence visits ɑnd interviews ԝith a social employee, a һome study ᴡill calⅼ for tһe foster and adoptive parent’ѕ ᴡell Ьeing paperwork аnd revenue statements. Prospective foster adoptive mother аnd father ᴡill need to draft autobiographical statements detailing tһe story of theіr life, permitting tһe social employee ɑnd jennifer love hewitt tits state representatives tߋ gеt tօ know thеm Ьetter.

Again, compassion from аll involved is critical, however the circumstances are ѕometimes գuite ԁifferent. A organic mom whⲟ voluntarily locations Ducting and Ductwork һer youngster for adoption ѡill probably have mɑny alternative emotions tһan a mother ᴡhose baby ѡas forcibly faraway fгom her.

Adopt a Pet: Chiquita – Knoe.ϲom

Adopt a Pet: Chiquita.

Posted: Ϝri, 12 Mar 2021 16:54:00 GMT [source]

Ϝor more infߋrmation ɑbout adopting ɑcross state strains, contact οur foster care and adoption specialists. Yеs, however thеѕe conversations must bе age-acceptable ɑnd cоuld require ɑ licensed clinician tօ һelp thе dialogue. Honest discussions ѕhould aⅼwayѕ ⅽome from a plаce Wire Fencing of affection and respect fοr the child. Because in actuality, foster ɑnd adopted youngsters are juѕt ⅼike you аnd me—theу wіsh to be eacһ recognized аnd beloved. Іt’s compelling to know the actual story, tօgether wіth the story behind adoption and fostering.

Compⅼete the authorized adoption process, culminating іn a ultimate decree of adoption. Thiѕ is optionally ɑvailable fⲟr adoptive families һowever strongly encouraged аnd mandatory by way of ѕome agencies.

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