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Explain the scope of Islamic administration and discuss the dynamic of Islamic administration

Question no.1

 Explain the scope of Islamic administration and discuss the dynamic of Islamic administration.


Definition and Spirit of Islamic Administration

The Holy Quran is the true foundation of Islamic life and its own law limited. Muslims are free to legislate when demands arise, in the spirit of social justice. A few rules of the Holy Quran tend to be more lenient and give greater scope to them adapt to any change in circumstances. Qamarudin Khan, Professor of Islamic History, Karachi University, is of the opinion that “the Holy Quran is not intended to create state but nation-building ”. So whatever the explicit rules are given by Allah (SW.T) and His messenger for life and community. No one is allowed to deviate from them even by breathing hair. Calling the Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W) the ideal philosopher – the king, who transcends both beliefs and applies attributes which Plato sought in his mind, is found in the famous Hadith of the Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W) as the founder and scholar of Islamic administration the empire had a unique position as its supreme head. He was, in fact, a legislator (with divine revelation and personal proclamations and do everything which gained the sacred character of Islam), the ruler, and the law.

He did not respond to anyone regarding the instructions revealed worried. However, in the absence of divine revelations, it was his custom to consult with her friends. In fact, he was commanded by Allah (S.W.T) to do so. Holy Quran instructs the Prophet “And contacts them (i.e. those near you) in (important) news.

Thus the two most important and essential ingredients of Islamic administrative theory by Ummah and Shari’ah. These ideas are clearly explained in the file Holy Quran. The Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W) was the main focus of these two concepts. Therefore, with the death of the Prophet, the Prophecy came to the end. Thus there was a gap between Sharia and Ummah. A new link created by Community Ijma in the form of the Khilafah formed the third element of the Islamic political ideology. The fourth factor would be the idea of ​​Dar al-Islam and the life of the Minist there.

The question arises as to whether Muslims prefer the monarchy or democracy to set. According to Maulana Maududi, the Islamic State regime does not specify any law a class of priests but means ordinary Muslims who use the rule of power. But Muslims should use this power in accordance with the Book of Allah (S.W.T) as well Sunnah, of His Prophet. Maududi prefers to call it a form of Islamic government as “foundation-democracy”. In this system of government Muslims are allowed a limited to the dominant sovereignty under the importance of Allah (S.W.T). Knowing the Islamic concept of governance, the Islamic State of Medina is a good example to look for when someone comes to solve various problems of the modern Muslim world. According to this view, the Islamic world of Medina existed ruled according to the divine commands of Muhammad (S.A.W). Take, as for example, the following quotation from Imam Khomeini. “The most honorable message (Peace and Blessings Upon Him) led us to the highest and most administrative institutions of the Muslim community. In addition to conveying revelation and explaining and interpreting articles of faith as well institutions and institutions of Islam, he began to make law again the establishment of the Islamic system, thus brought about the state of Islam. He was not satisfied with the information of the law, rather he himself apply it at the same time, cut out the hands, and put the blast again stoning. After the most honorable Messenger, his successor had the same job as well function.

In all you know the Islamic concept of handling the book of Hazrat Umar the second Muslim caliph, wrote to the ruler of Death, Abu Musa Ashari in principles of justice. He wrote: the administration of justice is a necessary profession. She is pregnant people equally can be an independent audience for social justice in such matters of justice so that the weak do not lose hope of your justice and the strong do not wait for kindness. It is because the plaintiff has produced evidence and then the defendant has denied its oath. Relaxation is allowed if it does not violate what it was allowed or not allowed (by Shariah). If you had made any decision yesterday there would be nothing wrong with changing it today with a second thought in interest injustice. If it is not in the Quran or Hadith think about it by carefully considering examples. Similar cases as drawing analogies. Fix the plaintiff’s time limit to present proof that justice has been served on him or her if the product evidence or otherwise, his case must be dismissed.

Principles of Islamic Administration:

The rule of Islam is based on the sovereignty of Allah (S.W.T):

According to the Islamic constitutional view complete sovereignty is above all the universe does not belong to Allah (S.W.T) but Sine Man is chosen as Allah (S.W.T) representing (Khalifa) on earth, earthly dominion resides in him as a holy trust from Allah (S.W.T). Therefore, the Muslim leader must follow to follow the principles of governing the state known as the Islamic state.

  1. The administration of Islam will uphold and protect the law of Allah is based on the Quran and the Sunnah.
  2. The Ijma of the past is not binding on people. All country workers must devote themselves to defending the divine law. The Head of the state must remain a Muslim.
  3. All subjects, Muslims and non-Muslims, will be guaranteed equal rights of society.
  4. Men and women will enjoy the same basic rights that women can enjoy the property in their name.
  5. The Chief Executive Officer will be elected by the people and controlled to consult.
  6. Islam seeks to establish a just society and, therefore, adheres to the highest order the importance of justice, equality, and efficiency. So two important ones.

The principles of the constitution are based on:

  1. That everyone is equal before the law and enjoys equal opportunities.
  2. That is the Islamic State even the head of state can be blamed not only as an independent person but also in relation to his public actions.
  3. Non-Muslims will be guaranteed full protection of life, property, and freedom instead of a reasonable defense / Jizya tax.
  4. Only the kind of democratic government is determined by Islam. The Quran says: And those who respond to their Lord and persist in prayer, and no the law is to negotiate. The Quran even commands The prophet seeks counsel: Therefore, forgive them and ask for their forgiveness, too contact them on the news.
  5. The state must maintain an equitable distribution of wealth. Torture of wealth in a few hands should not be allowed.
  6. The state must strive to achieve equality. Enough opportunities should be provided for employment, education, and so on social benefits.

 Dynamics of Islamic Model

The Islamic concept of politics cannot be separated from certain ideologies of society, supported by Islam. The Islamic State is the pinnacle of a great society the process of transition from multiple gods to one, from traditional domination to domination law, from a natural blood-derived relationship to a moral one again spiritual integration, from the sovereignty of nature to the power given by Allah (S.W.T). In Arabic, it means to move from shirk to Towhid from Jahallya to Shariah from Asabiyya to Taqwa and from Mulk to Wilaya. “Because orthodox Islamic community, history was a process of society religious ignorance, aimed at worldly purposes, is held in place by natural unity and kings were ruled, and the good Muslim community was replaced. The medium problem, however, was a reflection of the will of Allah (S.W.T) as revealed in the Quran, in history, society, and empire.

 Structure of the Islamic Model

  1. The Sovereignty of Allah (S.W.T) In the case of Islam, the sovereignty belongs to Allah (S.W.T) which means The instructions given in the Quran will be the only source for obtaining the law and the constitution of the state. The Islamic State cannot be a king, or a theocratic government, or a secular democracy. Based on ‘Controlled democracy’ meaning that the Quranic precepts form the supreme law, the supreme law of the land, and the people exercising their power freedom within the limits set by the Quran.
  2. Sunnah and Hadith

It is called the tradition of the Prophet is second and undoubtedly a second, a source from which Islamic law is derived. Sunnah literally means method, law, or procedure. In its original sense, therefore, The Sunnah shows the performance and hadith of the words of the Holy Prophet (PBUH) but in reality, both cover the same soil and apply to him actions, habits, and sayings; Hadith is a follow-up story and record for Sunnah: but it contains, moreover, various prophetic and historical variations elements of Islam. As the Holy Quran is widely used in general The principles or essentials of Islamic information usually have to be provided by the Sunnah of the Holy Prophet.


iii. Ijtihad

While maintaining a view of popular beliefs about Sharia to be a complete life code. Asad (1961) argues strongly the scope of the free law. He confirms that Sharia itself includes a small amount number of rules based on the Quran Sunnah. Some are emerging rules Ijtihad for all ages. Such rules are based on the independent thinking of early Islamic scholars do not have a sacred value and therefore can be changed and replaced. All generations have the right to use Ijtihad temporary places. Ijtihad is therefore the third source from which the rules come drawn The following Hadith is considered the foundation of Ijtihad in Islam:

“When the Governor of Yemen was elected. Muadh Bin Jabal he was asked by the Holy Prophet as a law to which he would apply to judge. He replied “according to the law of the Quran”. “But if do not find guidance in the Quran. How to do it make a decision ”, asked the Prophet. He replied, “I will apply for Hadith and Sunnah ”. “But if you don’t get guidance from and Hadith? ”He was also asked,“ I will be exercising judge me and act accordingly, ”came the reply. The Prophet he raised his hands and said, “Blessed be God who leads his people messenger the way he likes. ”This Hadith does not simply show that The Holy Prophet acknowledged the use of judgment but also that his friends were well acquainted with the principles and that Ijtihad was returned freely by his followers, where necessary, and in the days of the Prophet ”who was still alive.

  1. Ijma

The fourth source of Islamic law is Ijma, which contains double significance Designing and solving a visual object can be solved which is why deciding and resolving an issue, and agreeing or agreeing on a point of view. In the name of Muslim jurists, Ijma means the consensus of The Mujtahids, or Islamic legal agreement, are of a certain age by point legal. Ijma, however, is not an independent source of law; only Ijtihad is open to a broad base and like Ijtihad, it is always open for review.

1 Functions of the Director of Islam

The head of the Islamic state must continue to watch and be a follower of the above legal sources discussed. He must also have the following duties:

  1. The administration of justice and the dismissal of all claims accordingly Shariah and thus puts the strong and the weak on the same foundation.
  2. Law enforcement and order enable people to lead a peaceful life and to continue in their economic activities freely, and to leave the world without fear.
  3. Enforcement of the Quranic criminal code so that people do not break the prohibition of Allah (S.W.T); this is actually included in the original work itself to force the Shari’ah.
  4. Protection of anti-offensive barriers to ensure the security of life and property to Muslims and non-Muslims both in the Islamic State.
  5. Organizing and persecuting religious warfare against those who oppose summoning Islam or refusing to enter the security of the Islamic State as a non-Muslim matter as the leader is bound by the covenant of Allah (S.W.T) to establish the supremacy of Islam over all other religions and religions.

Question no.2

 Discuss the broad sense of school management. Also give suggestions for improving our school management system.


Concept of management in a broad sense:

There are three important levels of management (upper, middle, and Below); these three levels are involved in something else related to the magnitude of management Managers or supervisors or both at different times and in different levels. The job of management and administration is all-encompassing process and performance of administrative functions include; planning, policy performance, budget, staff, coordination, communication, control, direction, planning, implementation, decision making, monitoring, and evaluation (surveillance): You see that even though the management is there but they are confident jobs are often done at some levels by other companies. For example, there is a fundamental difference between policy-making by senior management (e.g. Ministerial level) and technology laws and regulations, but the quality and emphasis may vary according to the degree to which they are made. And editing is done at all levels. Advanced editing (Macro editing) is different that low-level management (min / Micro-Planning). Read the model by the number above with great criticism and try to see your position in all management consider how to use the model to create a standard frame for an index of adjustment work.

  1. Higher Level of Management:

At the senior management level, a few technical skills are used. The emphasis here is on planning and mental functions and there is something noticeable the first little effort in terms of working with people to do something jobs. The biggest concern for the ongoing project is the current state of affairs. Because for example, large areas of work include long-term goals and policies.

  1. Medium Level of Management:

Managers are concerned about ongoing work as a spectator and director of the day-to-day operation required to produce goods or services. In the middle, the general manager is reasonable in the management of remuneration plans, motivating subordinates, conducting meetings for training purposes, control or coordinate, conduct testing, and counseling. Work performed by employees is common in this group. In short, middle managers are responsible for the day-to-day effects of long-term goals.

iii. Sub-Management / Management:

Subordinates or managers plan and implement day-to-day operations to make specific arrangements to be made by employees. The above management levels affect the performance of the organization or performance. We refer to intermediate and middle-level managers as structures. The harder the structure, the longer it will be, the harder it will be decision making, communication, coordination, motivation. On the other hand, if it is less rigid and shorter structure, the faster the decision-making process will be.  Though there is a chance that supervision and control may get weekend. School management system: From the perspective of editors and managers in education,

The management process can be summarized as follows:

  1. Planning
  2. Organization
  3. Staff
  4. Control
  5. Editing:

As Robbins puts it, “Planning provides clues, it improves the continuity of actions also reduces friction and waste of activities. Through formulation of objectives, policies, procedures, rules and other guidelines for guidance are provided to members of the organization.

  1. Organizing:

Once the goals and strategies have been achieved, planning helps to implement things happen as planned. Editing is a work in progress that involves the collective efforts of the organization as a whole.

  1. Staff:

This is the process of finding the right person for each job. Including comparing individual qualifications and experience with job details. Employee jobs, compensation (salaries and benefits/leave bonuses), transfer, resignation, retirement, termination of employment, pension, etc.

  1. Direction:

This is a motivating activity. Trying to achieve a high level of productivity from staff through motivation and leadership.

  1. Links:

In modern business, unlimited performance is common creating various problems in all areas of management. It’s the job of senior management to coordinate and coordinate the work and interests of the people who make up the organization. O equal concern and consequences approx results-protected process. Just issuing orders is not the case it is enough to qualify a person to be an effective leader; rather it is a matter of being power and people, rather than being above them. It is a powerful force in an organization, which manages cooperation and collective progress towards objectives.

  1. Composing:

This is the creative work of managers. Changing times, technology, resources and conditions require new approaches. So, a new discovery and better ways to do the job, manage staff, get more money, to improve the performance of some (new) creative administrative functions.

  1. Control:

The control function monitors the achievement of objectives and compares the actual ones with more results than those set in planning and implementation past tenses. Control is directly related to systems and operations standards established by other administrative functions. There are many more functions are sometimes included under administrative function. These include Decision-making communication, coordination, human relationships, leadership, Problem-solving, etc.


Budgeting is a way to coordinate comprehensive integrated efforts editing into an application based on previous performance and is governed by the rational judgment of the factors that will influence future organizational performance. It’s not just a control anymore prediction. The overall objectives of the budget are, coordination and control.

  1. Decision making:

This is the most important job of a manager at all levels. Almost everything aspects of the administrative process include the making of decisions of one kind or another. There are many opinions on decisions and there are many sections on decision-making. The decision-making process includes five components: (a) problem identification; (b) interpretation and analysis problem (c) exploring alternative solutions; (d) very selective a convincing solution; and (e) implementing the preferred method. The five arts of the management decision-making process require that the decision be it is usable and should be the place where it should be done.

  1. Personal Relationships:

This means an administrative process related to treating employees as well co-workers first as people (with different values, desires, in between personal relationships, etc.)

  1. Reporting / Communication:

Communication is at the heart of the management process. For that decision, leadership, motivation, etc. it works, it has to be good communication. The supervisor must be able to communicate effectively with him subordinate and encourage feedback from them. Communication the process also involves exchanging symbols or messages or details between the sender (or contact; manager or subordinate) via content (eg circle, letters, conference, phone, notification, memos, files, etc.) to the recipient (manager or subordinate). Good communication the network should be vertical and horizontal and in all directions. These managers should try to remove them.

  1. Leadership:

It should be noted that the management process is well-done leadership. Thousands of lessons, books, etc. They focus on leadership ideas, tasks, models, processes, strategies, etc. Some of this will be checked later. In the meantime, we should take the leadership process as an interactive influence, which is used in contexts in communication the process of achieving specific group goals.

  1. Problem Solving:

This is closely related to modern concepts such as “conflict management” “Organizational Development” and in fact decisions are made. The old-fashioned problem-solving process includes; view, analyze, collect data (data), setup tentative solutions (hypotheses), set the solution, and use the right solution to the problem. A good manager is not afraid of problems because he is able to solve them.

  1. Motive:

The management process requires that people (employees) be adequate and effective mobilization in the absence of funding, the entire management process will be ineffective. There are several types of motivations: Such as the use of threat (fear motivation), the use of incentives, e.g. monetary rewards/salaries, bonuses (incentive motivation) and the positive changing of the worker’s attitudes (attitude motivation).

Question no. 3

Differentiate the inspection and supervision? And discuss the characteristics of supervision?


Differences between inspection/supervision

“By monitoring and evaluation, we mean a detailed and comprehensive review of all areas of work and institutional life. ”Adams and dicey discriminate against them Both ”tests, are a way of providing critical guidance and provision teaching career assessment. “Management is a program designed to improve teaching.

Finally looking at this definition can both be analyzed as:

Inspection                                        Supervision

Bureaucratic                                      Democratic

Direction and Regimentation         Well constructed suggestive and expert guidance

Improvement of Teaching             Improvement of learning

Supervision can therefore be termed as an existing ministry service to assist teachers to grow professionally and do their jobs better.

Characteristics of supervision:

The concept of testing should be transformed into that of healthy guidance and guidance. Test dates are sometimes considered anxiety, tension, fear, and panic. The academic side is not stressed. On our page, the world is in haste and is criticized for being insignificant and unsympathetic. Tests, it is said, always produce frustration and dissatisfaction only in teachers. So now this unproductive and unpopular idea is being criticized again attempts to replace the modern concept of management, namely a coordination process that promotes and directs the growth of educators which makes the learning process more effective. All the people who teach process-students, teachers, administrators, and administrators are people of it’s worth it, given different skills and abilities. The main purpose of supervision should be the amount of rent per person, until the end of the power of everyone will be perfect. The philosophy of democracy, the psychology of team relations and relationships between technical leadership etc, are gone an indelible imprint on the thought and practice of modern management in order of democracy, education is a great power. Therefore, surveillance it becomes stronger with the character.

  1. Directing should be democratic and cooperative in the spirit as well as Organization.

The main purpose of the administration should be to provide effective leadership and development of working relationships because Education is also seen as a business venture and art there all teachers, students, parents and administrators are involved and administrators it is their educational leaders who motivate, guide and mentors them improving the learning process. So today’s leadership must in addition the purpose of attitudes, collaborative efforts, and more constructive suggestions, great “self-education” and co-teaching of shared goals.

  1. Guidance should be established on satisfactory maintenance relationships between people.

The productivity of a group is affected by the quality of its relationships with people as well the manager should always work on developing the team to meet. Surveillance should therefore maintain a high personal level of communication. Otherwise, it would be ineffective and unproductive.

  1. 3. The manager is concerned about communication within the team as leadership depends on better social media communication, i.e. it should be a two-way process from the manager. Because the exchange of information is always helpful in planning and implementing policies should be broad in scope and should accommodate plan and appropriate clarification required by management agencies. Today supervision should be to develop all the aspects involved in the teaching reading process.
  2. Directing should be artistic. Teaching is a skill; Monitoring is a creative activity. Therefore the purpose of surveillance should be the best acquisition of the teachers who will pay, their delay talents, step-by-step stimulus, encourage their initiative and self-confidence. Monitoring should therefore emphasize their success and strength make their weaknesses and failures side issues. Directors should always have new ideas for creativity and original thinking.
  3. Direction should be scientific.

The manager should use scientific methods to improve teaching. Through research, experiments, research of actions to do make his work scientifically and effectively. You will encourage constructive and thoughtful thinking among teachers and do not encourage compliments and biased views.

  1. Monitoring should be experimental and automatically critical of the environment. In contrast to the independent and authoritative nature, the emerging concept of surveillance arouses censorship and self-criticism. So any aspects a learning condition found to be ineffective or harmful the success of the situation should be discarded or changed by the manager by guiding and directing teachers to do their job effectively.

Question no.4

Describe the concept of educational planning. Also, highlight the different types of educational planning.


Education Planning:

Educational Planning, like standard planning, is the process of preparing a set of a decision on the education business in such a way that objectives and objectives education will be available in the future with available resources. Educational planning is not the panacea of ​​all real or imagined diseases of the education system. It focuses on the use of systematic analysis issue educational production work (past and present) for the purpose of promotion (determining) what actions or measures will affect the production of education effective and efficient while considering the nature of the objectives of community and students, resources available, and time or viewing time:

“Education Planning is an ongoing process of finding and analyzing facts and, from an artistic basis, to provide information to decision-makers on how well the education system achieves its objectives, in particular, cost the effectiveness of certain education programs and projects can be improved. ”

The main interests of Education Planning include the following:

1: Correction of Other Decisions

Decisions are primarily aimed at assisting policymakers and practitioners (authorized) to make sound decisions and must take steps that can are very successful in education.

  1. Goals and Objectives

This means what we desire as an outcomes education process, eventually becoming the most important area news.

  1. Programs and Tasks

How can we plan different patterns of learning activities as well support services in such activities?

  1. Human Resources

How can we help and improve their performance, their communication, their technology, their behavior, their skills, their growth, and satisfaction?

  1. Physical Resources

How do we use available properties, or edit their distribution pattern, or how much should be increased, and what resources the resources have especially in relation to other tangible resources?

  1. Finance

How we charge our expenses and how we can plan our income (availability and best use) is a great way to shape the character of how do we use the personal and physical resources of the education system?

  1. Government building

How we plan and manage educational performance and management programs and activities in response to political situations, provisions and the creed.

  1. Social Context

What resources and public resources should we consider in the education system, which is actually a small social system that includes the various elements of a whole national or civil society system? Therefore, education programs are seen as national integration strategies. Planning a national, local, or institutional effort to influence the future by taking a rational, predetermined action right now by design other methods, techniques, and techniques to help order in to achieve the desired goals. Specifically, the focus is on educational planning include: to create simplicity or to clarify the strategic philosophy of the system, objectives and program objectives and requirements; to explore alternatives to the file the establishment of priorities, to provide communication and access to information, analyze resources, assess the achievement of objectives and you should look into this in relation to the future. The key to an adequate education is the characteristics of time, cost and skills of editors.

As we know, education is a time-consuming process, for a child to start his own education today can apply for entry into secondary education in the 5th year time. After another 5 years, she may want to go to college. And after 14 years to start his education he will start looking for a job. Because of the long-term periods involved in the education process, education planner and the manager must look ahead, he must arrange so that within the in due course facilities will be available to provide the child with the appropriate type of education. It can be said that education is in trouble: quality is low, content is unemployed, money not available, graduates cannot find work. Programs as well Programs should be designed to solve their problems.

Planning is a sincere effort to influence future development, but planning is not it’s really necessary, as if it’s not planned people will still ask you residential universities etc. if we leave education it will continue expanding and expanding planning aims to intervene in this natural growth process as well to change the speed or side of it.

Types of Education Planning

  1. Default or Intermediate Editing

Arrangements made at the state level or through the middle body as a government planning commission is said to be necessary planning. The targets and resources for the completion of the programs are allocated by the provincial government. Beginners can be a provincial authority.

  1. Identification Setting or Location Level Setting

This type of planning is done at the local level or at the root level of the grass of society. Local people set priorities. They are preparing projects with the help of a specialist. Funds are allocated for the completion of local projects by the government. Pakistan has launched this type of organizing with the help of regional Nazis in the affected areas.

  1. Ordinary Classification

In this type of planning, projects are prepared by each sector separately. Funds are provided to the secretary of the department of project implementation. Here’s the time for everything departments / Ministers are busy completing development jobs. There is little cooperation between the departments. Always the department determines its own priorities. Development activities they are scattered throughout the land. This type of planning covers everything parts of the world. The pace of development is slowing down in this type of planning.

  1. Integrated Editing

In this type of setting the location of the driver is selected for improvement. All methods of departments focus on the development of that particular area. They adapt projects according to local needs. All methods of projects approve funding at the same time to all frameworks for use. In this way, the development of that area is ensured by all resources. However, there is a weakness in this type of planning, areas of need exist neglect and their opportunity comes after a long time.

Question no.5

 Critically examine the techniques and principles of classroom management. Also, give suggestions for improving our classroom management system.


Principles of Classroom Management

Principle # 1: Evaluate, clarify and discuss needs and expectations Student and teacher needs, preferences, and expectations should be discussed openly on the first day of class and periodically updated as a preventative measure.

Student needs/rights/expectations: Student’s basic needs include survival humanity, power pleasure, and freedom. They expect the teacher to make it easier for them to learn by limiting the disruptive behavior of the learner.

 Teacher needs / rights / expectations: Teacher needs full care of each student. You have the right to establish appropriate learning spaces. He can expect behaviors that contribute to a student’s positive growth.

 Other student expectations: The student is expected to attend prepared for the classroom with appropriate classroom materials and a willingness to learn. Students are expected to behave respectfully to teachers and others students. In addition, the student is expected to receive the results of misconduct.

 Other Teacher’s Expectations: The teacher is expected to check Exciting courses that meet the needs of students (listed above), provide encouraging and helpful lessons, and always asking students to be the best they can be. In addition, the teacher is expected to use effective teaching methods that may encourage students to engage in rewarding learning activities.

Rule # 2: Create a warm and caring climate in the classroom

The classroom should be a place where the student feels at home. Students need to feel safe and welcome, so ridicule and sarcasm are not allowed. Respect for each other and the Golden Rule is key to maintaining this climate.

Physical condition: The classroom should be clean and comfortable adorned with student creation, yet free from distractions. The desks should be arranged to allow students to work together again allowing the teacher to move around freely and effectively.

.Student Management: Each student deserves to be treated with dignity and respect. Students should be greeted in person at the door. It should given as much personal attention as possible during and outside the classroom.

Esprit de crop: Although there are many causes for Esprit de crop, a Teacher’s enthusiasm, level of student interest and all involvement can affect the level of classroom unity. This power can benefit from collaborative learning experiments and making lessons more accessible even more fun.

Principle # 3: Democracy establishes a set of rules and consequences . Teachers and students must formulate, ethical values ​​that include rules with clear and effective results. The rules must be agreed upon as wlim understood by everyone in the class. It should be understood that where the rules are broken, the results will be used properly and consistently.

Combine class rules according to expectations and needs: The teacher asking for help helps create a set of rules and classroom obligations. The good list will be short and show ideas of mutual respect as well your responsibility.

Discuss logical results: Logical results always follow certain behavior. They are explained in advance too agreed with the students. It is hoped that by understanding the results of disruptive behavior, that students will make better choices. Outcomes should be associated with misconduct so that students can see communication. For example, if you choose not to work in your assignment, you will stay after school until we finish.

Show rules and results clearly: Once the class is readily Improved by the proposed legislation, it should be presented as a reminder to those who can break them. This gives the teacher something to express when you ask for certain behavior.

Rule # 4: Improve your daily routine, but stay flexible.

The student will often misbehave if he does not know exactly what to do next. The teacher can prevent this problem by incorporating the whole class and procedures, which would allow the student to begin and complete the task more quickly.

Every minute counts: As part of an active process, the better students begin work immediately after the bell rings. Problems with entertainment or interesting presentation topics can be included in the project at the top of sit well with the student until attendance is taken. Work can lead directly to the study of the day.

Facilitation: As soon as the lesson is done, the teacher is free to answer individual student questions. This time, the teacher needs to know what’s going on in all the classroom areas. Therefore, it is important to provide “practical assistance” to students. This type of help is possible and reduces the number of cases of “dependency syndrome” – students asking questions without the need for help.

Managing assignment collection: Each class has its own daily basket assignments. At the end of the hour, at the exit of the classroom, the students stop off their completed grading assignments.

Redesign or restructuring: It is understandable that lesson plans can be affected by circumstances beyond the control of the pastor. There may be situations where class activities have to be reorganized or reorganized in order to be receptive to changed circumstances. It is possible, with some ingenuity, to make the state is a learning experience, which benefits all.

Principle # 5: Make reading pleasure for students. Schools are for students, not teachers. Important for teachers to increase all necessary efforts to make the curriculum relevant, subjects are fun, and jobs are fun. The result will be promising again an active participant in the learning process.

Real encouragement: Students respond well to participating in their favorite activities group activities, called real incentives. You may get

a whole class of work if encouragement is available to all students, and it is appealing across the group so that it deserves more effort. Encouragement should be both motivating students and the importance of education.

 Effective student engagement: The teacher can make learning more appealing by providing a consistent and effective presentation. Finding the study continues, keeping the flow and smooth transitions, to avoid sudden changes that hinder students’ work,  are essential for maintaining the positive student behavior being at work.

Focus on student needs: Subject subjects should be relevant to students if each time. Teaching strategies should be tailored to the learning styles. The teacher should help students develop learning strategies that are real, achievable, and a source of pride. Jobs should be fun with students.

Rule # 6: Deal with misconduct, promptly and consistently.

Misconduct hindered my good work as a teacher. Time spent dealing with misconduct can best be used to educate others. Therefore, misconduct will be dealt with promptly and consistently with the class-defined results.

Non-verbal communication: body language, facial expressions, gestures, eye contact, and physical intimacy can all work to promote self-control by the student. It is important that the teacher knows enough to be able to see where misconduct is possible, and also be a speechless way to prevent growth. Konnie refers to this level of appreciation as”Art”.

Reminders/requests: This is an oral reminder for the classrooms and results will be all that is needed to stop a student misconduct.

Rehabilitation: Despite the misconduct, the teacher can explain to the reader and suggest an acceptable action. The student is often reminded only of what he or she needs to do. For example, “Instead of reading that newspaper, I want you to work on your homework for the next five minutes. You can read the paper later ”.

Dealing with students who want attention: If the teacher ignores the attention demanded by the student, misbehavior often rises to a level therein the end it is ignored. Therefore, it is best if the teacher directs the student’s behavior and attempts to give the student attention where he or she is not a forced search. This approach encourages students to seek inspiration internally, instead of relying on external care.

Avoid power struggles: It is important that authority comes out of class (teacher) does not participate in the power struggles with the is best to redirect the character of a student who wants power by donating something position of responsibility or decision-making.

Rule # 7: When all else fails, politely remove the student from the class Ongoing disruption will not be tolerated in my class. They are dangerous for all students they will be active and effective students. Therefore, such students will be respectfully removed from class, dealing with it illegally.

The Insubordination Act: This rule states: “If a student does not accept the result of a violation of section law, in which case he will not be allowed stay in class until the result is achieved. ”This law should be explained to students from day one, and should be strictly enforced with the approval of management.

Conference: The teacher may request an individual conference with the student discusses a specific behavioral problem. The purpose of this conference gaining insight for practical guidance. Too bad moral issues, the teacher may also request a conference with the student’s parent or guardian for the same purpose.

Code of Conduct: This is a program designed for non-respondent students common discipline. The plan can be written in the form of a contract, too should include the values ​​expected of the student, good recognition of consistency, and the result of failure. The program must target one or more two important problems at a time, and should apply the results namely is different from the failures that the whole class used earlier.

Here are eleven ways a teacher can use her class to help her to achieve effective group management and control. Changed from an article entitled: “Primer on Classroom Discipline: Principles Old and new” by Thomas r. McDaniel; Phi Delta Kappan, May 195 Focus: Make sure you pay attention to everyone in your class beforehand you start your study. Do not try to teach over the student discussion careless. Inexperienced teachers sometimes think that at first their lesson, the class will sit down. The children will see that things are so it’s going on now and it’s time to go to work. Sometimes this works, however, kids will also think you’re willing to compete with them. You do not hesitate to speak while they are speaking. He is willing to talk too much to see he could end their conversation there after starting the study. They found the file the idea that you accept their neglect and that you are allowed to speak while you are they introduced a lesson. Focus techniques mean you will need their attention before you start. That you will wait and not start until everyone has it he sat down. Experienced teachers know that it is very quiet for them successfully. They will maintain their wait by extending it after 5 to 10 seconds the class is silent. After that, they began their study quietly word than usual. A well-spoken teacher usually has a quiet classroom than one who has a strong voice. His disciples sat down to hear what he had to say.

Specific Instruction: Uncertainty increases the level of happiness in the classroom. Specific command process to start each phase by telling students exactly what will happen. The teacher states what she and the students will be doing this time. They can set time limits for specific tasks. An effective way to get married this way and the first time to invest in the only time for students to do the activities they love. The teacher is possible to complete the description of the hourly tasks with “and I think we will have more deadline time to chat with your friends, go to the library, or hold the work of other classes. “The teacher is more than willing to wait for the class attention when he knows there is more time to achieve his goals and objectives. The students quickly realize that when a teacher waits for their time to pay attention to them, less free time they have at the end of the hour.

Caution: The key to this system is distribution. Stand around The room, while your students are working, make rounds. Check their progress, a successful teacher will make you pass throughout the room in about two minutes after the students have begun the written assignment. He looks at each student it has already begun, that the kids are on the right page, and that everyone has posted their name on their papers. Delays are important. He wants his disciples to have it there is a problem or two completed to check that the answers are labeled or in complete sentences. Provides personalized education as required. Students who have not yet arrived at work will be quick to proceed as they see his way. This interrupted our late start can be pulled aside.



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