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Define Teaching And Elaborate Old And New Aspects Of Teaching.

Questionno.1  (a)

Define Teaching And Elaborate Old And New Aspects Of Teaching.


A child’s learning depends on the talent and abilities of the person leading his or her home in the classroom, the teacher. Teachers are people who work well to face the reality of nature in the form of the thoughts that are growing before them, their students.

Teaching is an art and a learning process. In this process, students are encouraged in many ways of learning. The teacher begins with the student’s point of view differently things, what they know and what they think about the topic. The teacher ends up in the first thought student knowledge. Teaching has a powerful effect on the way students think, act, and feel.

Teaching is defined as the process by which students prepare for learning to provide the first structure to clarify the planned results and to show the lessons learned strategies. Teachers provide ample opportunities in the classroom for students to do practice and apply what they learn and provide them with a focus on development (Good, T .; Brophy, J. 2000).

Teachers provide assistance to enable students to engage in learning activities by production (Meichenbaum, D.; Biemiller, A. 1998). In the teaching process, teachers move their students from an unknown level to a level of understanding of new concepts. So a successful teacher is one who contributes to the learning environment by increasing student interest. Because the purpose of teaching a teacher is to play five major roles. These roles are:

As a subject matter expert

Teachers are very knowledgeable about the subject matter and they excel in stationery. Teachers develop important and original ideas on the subject see. They consider disciplinary matters on the basis of their knowledge.

As a teacher

Teachers set the right goals and objectives for learning and talk about them clearly. They show a positive attitude towards the subject, working to overcome difficulties can be a barrier to learning. They analyze and mark students’ work accordingly. They show students through critical thinking, problem-solving processes and support improve their understanding. Teachers give students feedback about their progress in learning.

As the Outstanding Coordinator

The teacher demonstrates oral communication and written writing, good organization planning skills, and abilities. It helps students learn to use effective communication skills; use teaching tools effectively.

As a student-focused counselor

The teacher tries to encourage each student to learn in different ways to encourages student participation. Take her students to higher levels of education.

As an organized and continuous inspector

The teacher conducts an appropriate assessment of student outcomes in order to improve student learning experiences. He evaluates himself systematically teaching, keeps the classroom material fresh and fresh. He is using a new style of teaching to do achieve the learning objectives of the learner’s success by identifying his or her weaknesses and errors in the teaching process.

Learning is a very simple and natural process for young children but it is also difficult it is difficult for children as they grow up. Learning can be made easier and more natural in schools only if education and teaching are based on experience in children’s lives.

Alton-Lee (2003) lists ten aspects of quality teaching. Alton-Lee’s ten-point model includes the following areas:

  1. Focus on student achievement.
  2. Teaching activities that create caring learning, including interaction communities.
  3. Effective communication between schools and the context of school culture.
  4. Quality teaching responds to student learning programs.
  5. Learning opportunities are practical and adequate.
  6. Many activities and situations support learning cycles.
  7. The objectives of the curriculum are well aligned.
  8. Pedagogy distributes feedback through student engagement.
  9. Pedagogy develops learning methods, student self-regulation, meta comprehension thoughtful student strategies, and speech.
  10. Teachers and learners participate constructively in goal-oriented assessment.

  Old and new aspects of teaching :

Long ago a Russian psychologist, the ideas of L. S. Vygotsky (1956) touched on the earth understanding teaching, learning, and mental development. Many investigators of various nations have now elaborated, refined, and developed the concept of teaching in contrast. Much of this work has focused on local “environmental education” as well as the community. It is now widely accepted that before children enter school, they could be “taught” comprehension and language skills. the teaching of these skills is done daily communicating home life by setting activities aimed at the goal of daily life. A new concept of teaching has skilled families and friends who help children to do things that kids can’t do on their own. In Vygotsky’s theory, a child’s growth rate is determined by the child’s ability to do the work alone. On the other hand, the child’s ability to do work also anyone’s help was called Vygotsky’s “imminent development site”. Teaching can be described in a nearby setting.

According to Vygotskian principles, teaching is only good if it “arouses and awakens those activities in the maturity phase, located in the vicinity development “(Vygotsky, 1956, p. 278; quoted in Wertsch & Stone, 1985).

The general definition of teaching is therefore taken from this: Teaching contains to help work through the child development environment (ZPD). However, teaching should be redefined as an auxiliary function; teaching occurs when in practice.

Student Assistance (Teaching):

Student performance can be aided in many ways. Behavior and self-esteem science has provided the following seven methods of assistance:

  1. Modeling: The teacher gives a character impersonation. Modeling helps to learn again gives the reader information and a memorable image that can serve as a performance level.
  2. Back-to-back feeding: teacher provides information on student performance. This allows students to compare their performance with the standard, too allows for self-adjustment.
  3. Emergency management: The teacher uses reinforcement principles as well as punishment. In these rewards and punishments, a good choice is made morally and avoid misconduct.
  4. Direction: teachers’ requests for specific actions. A helpful guide for specifying a file the correct answer. Provides specific details, and promotes decision-making.
  5. Asking: the teacher produces a mental performance that the student cannot or will not do not production alone. This collaboration helps by giving the teacher information about growing student understanding.
  6. Explanation: The teacher gives an explanation of the concepts in the content. This assists students to plan and justify new learning and ideas.
  7. Activity planning: The teacher organizes the activity into various sections sequence. Students work on this project. job construction includes cutting, dividing, and sequencing.

Well-organized classroom activities in teaching and providing assistance to students to read. Many teaching methods such as lectures, demonstrations, collaborations tests/reading activities, and reading books can all help with reading. Other essential elements that contribute to classroom learning are repetition and assessment. In the past teachers emphasized memorization and quick answers. they were not opportunities for giving and taking between teachers and students. The role of students it did nothing. Very few teachers make an effort to adapt teaching to individual differences.

Another modern method/means to effectively teach “scripts” (written instruction). It involves traditional student-teacher interactions set up. It uses the teacher’s pre-defined speech and predicts readers’ responses. It offers more than just a reading script.


Q no. 1 (b)

 Highlight the principles of effective teaching.


Richard T. Walls (1999) created a link between the “process” of teaching and the “student learning “(product) in” Four Aces for Effective Teac According to Walls (1999) student learning is better, faster, and/or longer-lasting

when teachers play the following four principles:

1: Results

The results enable learners to focus on specific learning objectives. These results let students know where they are going and how they will get their results. The results also give the teacher a design framework once delivering course content. The results enable teachers to assess the student. learning as a measure of their teaching success.

2: Clarity

Successful teachers provide explanations and provide lesson details concepts and content. If students do not read, it means the methods of delivery may not have the required level of clarity. The teacher should therefore make the message clear from one way or another other sense, the teaching practice of teachers should have students the opportunity to make connections between something new and concepts already learned.

3: Involvement

This policy suggests that students learn by doing. Teachers must create a file for an educational environment that gives students the opportunity to become familiar with all of them the idea that they are learning. Effective teachers apply that teaching strategy that engages students throughout the lesson.

4: Enthusiasm

The goal of a high level of enthusiasm reflects the teacher’s expert knowledge and confidence, knowledge of the teacher, and teaching subjects experience. Teachers create the right learning environment and demonstrate

enthusiasm for the story. They use the names of the students, strengthening the student participation during class, and continue to walk among students. With the knowledge of the stated principles, the ideas of the teachers should apply various ways to make their teaching more effective. below are ways to effective teaching.

 Effective methods

Tharp and Gallimore, (1991) look at working through teaching in three ways; A ‘style’ view (how teachers teach), a ‘results’ approach (student results), and How to ‘ask’ (style and results within the framework).

  1. i) ‘Style’ view

“Effectiveness in teaching depends on what the teacher does.” Next

The statements reflect the concept of effective teaching:

  1. Successful teachers display warmth.
  2. Successful teachers are motivated.
  3. Successful teachers give a thorough overview at the beginning of a lesson new.
  4. Effective teachers reduce the amount of time they all teach front row (straight commands).
  5. Successful teachers engage in collaborative knowledge building. teacher-student interviews with students.
  6. Successful teachers use teaching methods and research methods available shown to work.
  1. ii) ‘Results’ method

“Effectiveness in teaching is determined by student outcomes.” Next the statements reflect the concept of effective teaching:

  1. Teaching performance is determined by what students accomplish.
  2. Teachers’ comparative performance is best determined by comparison the success of the teaching profession.
  3. Teachers’ comparative performance is best determined by comparison the additional amount they contribute to the success of the students themselves teach.

iii) How to ‘ask’

“Effectiveness in teaching is determined by the quality of the research conducted in the relationship between teacher actions and student learning. ”

This alternative view considers the effectiveness of teaching in a way that addresses the file of issues raised in the discussion of style and results. Simply put, this approach is contradictory that:

Successful teachers ask about the relationship between what they do (style) and what happens to students (results). But successful teachers do more than just ask (or reflect) – they take steps (in terms of what they are doing in class) to improve student outcomes and they continue to question the significance of these interventions.

The investigation model shows two stages of investigation:

Investigations 1

This study looks at the impact of teaching on student behavior results. This investigation includes the collection and analysis of details on an important question: “What happens to students in class? ”And the questions below that examine the relationship between student teaching and learning activities.

Investigations 2

This research focuses on identifying opportunities for development through the experience of other teachers and researchers. The research cycle established by the processes of Investigation 1 and Investigation 2 develops an opportunity to study with a teacher (in the sense that they are learning about the impact of their practice) and that of students (in the sense that teacher habits have changed aimed at increasing student engagement and achievement). So effective teaching is more about style and more than results – that is further examination of the relationship between these two measures in order to increase student achievement.



Q no. 2 (a) Describe the teachers’ personality traits to create and maintain a classroom/learning environment.


Teaching is a multidisciplinary activity. Teachers have to do many more roles there is a process of teaching and imparting knowledge to students. They are important puts into the lives of students in their classrooms. Mostly they set their tone classrooms, create a warm environment, and take care of students by looking at any sign of problems. They became role models for the students.

The role of the teacher in the classroom as a leader is to lead students, and families. The classroom teacher is responsible for building good learning and discipline environment:

– in the classroom

– in curricular activities

– in informal interactions with students

In this way, each student is challenged to grow in knowledge and maturity, according to his power, in all aspects of his life.

 Areas of Commitment

The class teacher is responsible for:

– Promoting the delivery of the School / College philosophy in an orderly fashion classroom prayer, participation in the academic life of the College, and modeling of appropriate ethical standards.

– Keeping the learning environment relevant and functional with good preparation courses, which provide a variety of skills and interests for students.

– True setting and challenge levels of student performance.

– A challenging and practical program for student homework.

– Full attention to student work is included of marking as well surveillance.

– Demonstrate knowledge, skills, and confidence in the relevant subject discipline.

– Demonstrating high levels of expertise in all professions.

Let’s take a closer look at teacher roles as teachers work on many other roles in


  1. Knowledge Teaching

The general role of the teacher in the classroom is to teach knowledge to children. Teachers are given a curriculum to follow that meets the world’s guidelines. This curriculum is followed by the teacher for complete information is passed on to students at a given time (academic year). Teachers teach at many methods, such as lectures, small group activities, and hand reading jobs.

  1. Creates a Classy Environment

Teachers play a key role in creating the classroom or good or bad. Students often imitate the teacher’s actions. If you are a teacher prepares a warm, happy environment, where students will also be happy. The teachers are responsible for public behavior in their classrooms. This behavior especially reflects the actions of the teacher and the environment he or she sets up.

  1. Imitation

Students spend a lot of time with their teacher and their teacher becomes who is an example to them. This can have a positive or negative effect depending on the teacher. Teachers not only teach children but also love and care for them. Teachers are therefore respected by the community and set a good example for students and parents.


  1. Counseling

Counseling is a natural role for teachers. Counseling is a way of the teacher encourages the students to do their best. This includes motivation students enjoy reading. Listening carefully to students is part of counseling. By taking the time to listen to what the students have to say, the teachers are giving the students the impression that ownership in the classroom. This helps build their confidence and helps them to seek to be successful.

  1. Symptoms of the Problem

As a protector, the teacher looks for signs of trouble for students. When the students’ behavioral changes and any sign of physical abuse is noticed, teachers are needed to look for a problem and solve it according to each rules.

 Appropriate Classroom Environment

The best classroom environment with the effect of practical learning (Callahan 1996). The classroom environment becomes more conducive (conducive) to learning when the teacher is pre-planning teaching analyzes the behavior of each class member. In that environmental students become independent directors when encouraged with appropriate guidance and teacher teaching strategies.

According to Arif (2003) to create a legitimate learning environment, teachers must establish and maintain it in accordance with the teaching principles as well as managing habits. They should use their time more productively to reduce disruptive behavior. Learners should always be involved in activities that focus on learning and activities. The following are some ways to make the classroom more effective:

(i) Keep students motivated by keeping students motivated to learn. The teachers set the stage for building a comfortable classroom environment. Motivating students is the first step in preventing discipline problems in the classroom because a learner who participates in learning does not have time to engage in conflict with others.

(ii) Meeting basic needs. Teachers should strive to meet age-appropriate learner bases requirements. Make students feel physically fit, safe, welcome, socially acceptable, and exposed. Besides, they are more likely to face learning difficulties and get involved in disruptive actions.

(iii) Use a limited level of control. The level of class control should be moderate. Student reading is good in the classroom where teachers don’t use too much either very little control. Too much control can apply to memory functions however it is dangerous for learning that involves deep thinking and creativity.

(iv) Empower learners. Make them responsible for their learning through group and individual activities so that they can finally become independent students. This is one of the purposes of good classroom management.

(v) Keep education at the student level. Maintain education at the student development level so they don’t get depressed or bored. Otherwise, see it can behave like a distraction.


Q no.2 (b)

Enlist the role of a primary teacher.


1) Develop healthy and positive relationships with all learners by being friendly with them. Read their names and other good information about each to greet them.

2)  Transfer interest to all learners and show concern for each of them. The interest and concern are conveyed with a brief glance at all as well by supporting body and face movements while teaching.

3) When instructing, ensure physical contact with all students by roaming around the classroom.

4) Avoid giving students negative adverbs, which may demean their self-esteem. Labeling influences the quality of teacher-student interactions, which continues to influence the expectations and actions of students negatively.

5) Explain the student’s behavior, not the student’s behavior. Instead of saying, “You’re contemptuous”, “your comment was bad”. By criticizing students’ personalities are less likely to change their behavior.

6) Increase “participation time” by keeping learners involved in learning activities through use, ingenuity, fragmentation, smooth transition, and team focus.

7) Teach the roles and habits of young learners in a more academic fashion explanation, examples, and practices during the first classes.


8) Develop a set of a few general class rules that apply to different situations. These rules should be displayed in class.

9) Be firm, rather than harsh or harsh in enforcing discipline. Apply for its rules with power, consistency, and peace.

10) Create a business as a climate in the classroom, where learners understand that and the teacher has a common shared intention to accomplish such tasks encourage reading, (Arif, 2003).

To help the student deal with misconduct, the following suggestions may be helpful:

(i) Deal with the current, current, not the past issues of student misconduct.

(ii) Talk to the student directly, instead of talking about him and others.

(iii) Do not be harsh and resentful. Keep calm and speak with conviction. Anger, empty threats, and physical treatment should be avoided.

(iv) If a learner has a grudge, the teacher can remove his or her hostility by responding with mildness, gentleness, and with mildness. Learners’ feelings must be accepted for the purpose of silencing them.

The role of teachers is redefined as follows:

Teaching has differed from the traditional view of “show-and-tell” practices. Therefore the role of teachers in a child’s education has also been fundamentally changed. In today’s world of technology, education is more than just content it is primarily taught to students but gives all children a rich, rewarding, unique life learning experience. Students no longer have to sit in queues at desks and do well listen and record whatever they hear. Now they are very active and need to participate in the learning and teaching process by sharing information with their peers and teachers.

The state of education has now been extended from class to home as well society even globally. Details are also not limited to some books but they are available everywhere. Schools are centers of lifelong learning. In this changing age, the doctrine has been regarded as one of the most challenging and respected works for the sake of our entire nation’s social, cultural, and economic health depends on it.

So every aspect of the teaching process and the role of the teacher should be reconsidered as teacher-student relationships, teaching tools and strategies, rights and the responsibilities of teachers, the context and content of the curriculum, standards of assessment, preparation, and professional development of teachers and the schools as a workplace. The teachers themselves and their work better serve schools and students.



Q no .3

Why is outlining goals/objectives necessary before planning a lesson?


The learning program is a roadmap for instructions. It shows what to teach and how it will be done successfully during the lesson. Teachers need a lesson plan to explain it their one-class educational course. A curriculum is required to guide education. A lesson plan is needed to define a person’s preferences, topics covered, activities are held in the classroom, and ensures students’ progress about a lesson they are taught.

A well-structured curriculum reflects the interests and needs of students. Contains a file for the objectives of the ethical study (show a change in behavior). Best and most effective teaching methods and strategies for implementation Objectives are included in the lesson plan. Content to be included in class is shown in the learning program. Assessment procedures are included in the curriculum.

Curriculum planning benefits the teacher in many ways; such as:

    • It helps to achieve goals and objectives, and the same can be said in the students.
    • It helps to solve problems or avoid them.
    • Provides a real check for daily performance.
    • It develops student practice and attitude.
    • Improves teaching skills.
    • It makes teaching normal and easy.
    • It keeps the teacher organized during the lesson.
    • Lesson planning determines when you incorporate interesting facts to attract student attention.
    • It empowers the teacher to pass on what students can do to the best of their ability skills.

Course planning process

First, the teacher needs to identify the learning objectives of the class, and then build it appropriate learning activities and developing strategies for learner feedback to read. An effective study plan considers and integrates these three key elements:

    • Learning objectives for students
    • Teaching/learning activities
    • Strategies for assessing students’ comprehension

Objectives are described with the aid of student learning in determining the types of teaching as well learning activities to be used in the classroom. These activities will explain the success of learning objectives. The following figure describes the study plan.

The detailed planning of the study is emphasized in the following sections:

Pre-Planning Stage

Before teaching a teacher should consider a specific lesson plan for the classroom. The Center for Improvement in Teaching (1999) recommends that the answers to the following questions can help teachers promote good planning:

– What are my goals for this section?

Objectives are statements of what the teacher wants students to learn. The Objectives may be the same, or closer, to the purposes defined in time planning a course. This is specified in a particular section.

– What are the objectives of this section?

Objectives are statements of specific ethical statements. They say what students should be able to do, in-class / paper/exam, etc. The objectives also define the conditions under which learners should learn stories.

– Why is this important?

The teacher thinks about the importance of the skills or knowledge being taught to students.

– What content will be included in a particular class?

A sound mind statement (logical consultation) will help teachers decide What content needs to be submitted? Or What students will need to know to meet the goals and objectives set in is that right Or What content is most important to them to understand?

– What will students already know?

Each learner has a different experience, the teacher should try to explore, what it is students already understand or are able to do it. Having knowledge of Pre-student learning teachers are in a better position to decide what to do to start a class and how you can help students learn.

– What items will be needed?

These are machines to achieve the goals that the teacher takes when needed equipment, overheads. Good planning in advance will allow teachers to be fixed.

Curriculum design

There are three key elements to the curriculum that most teachers use. Here it is the difference between these things. All of this may not apply to all classes, because some programs can be spread over two or more classes. The elements are as follows:

  1. i) Introduction

The introduction is a way to warm up the students, get them into the classroom as well give them a summary of what they will learn. Any of the following will be assist a good start:

    • Provide an outline of what to do in class. Providing structure helps students to organize their thoughts and integrate new ideas.
    • Summarize the previous lesson if the ideas match this section. Remember previous information helps students to relate new ideas as well.
    • Introduce the topic related to the topic and ask readers to produce a list of questions. Linking the lesson to these questions will give a picture of the student experience, familiarity, and ability to decorate the topic in their lives. This shows that what you teach is effective and engaging their attention.
  1. ii) Progress

Progress is an important part of what it means to teach, or “to teach methods ”such as, lectures, interviews, labs, collaborative reading, etc.

    • Try to involve students as much as possible in the learning process. It works learning is one way to engage students. It’s not just about keeping students’ attention but also helps them develop higher thinking skills.
    • Try using a variety of teaching methods in the classroom. Anyone way it may not work for all students. Various methods keep their attention and improve reading.
    • Give learners the opportunity to apply the skills taught through concepts. This will help them learn and give the teacher the opportunity to explore informally. This assessment will provide learning clarity and the need for continuous practice.

iii) The conclusion

Planning how to tie students together is also important. Tell them and what they will learn and why it is important for them. Think about the following activities in conclusion:

  1. iv) Ask questions:

The last few minutes of class are an excellent time to get students to ask questions and examine ideas on their own.

  1. v) Summarize the main points and explain how they relate to the lesson:

Students do not always see how everything fits together. The teacher made the connection between single-phase activities and the larger course. In this way, the teacher is very helpful for students to develop cognitive comprehension.

  1. vi) Next lesson:

Also, this shows the relationship of the subjects linked to each other and helps students develop conceptual understanding.

vii) Rewrite or write one minute on a taught subject:

With one or two minutes left in class, ask students to take out a sheet of paper, and without putting their name on it, write down what they believe was the main point class concept and one question they have about subject content.

Planning Stage

The teacher’s lesson planning process should take into account the need for assessing whether the students are educated? How successful has the study been? This test is not a difficult or difficult task. It’s very simple and uncluttered. Because for example, using part of the class to allow students to work on the problems you have given them, or discuss the issues and apply the concepts, it can give you a good idea of ​​what they are and how big they are read on. Writing one minute about the subject or problems with homework can likewise help.

Q.No 4(a)

Highlight Hunter’s seven steps of lesson planning?


Madeline Hunter’s seven-course curriculum Hunter has developed a seven-step model of lesson planning. These steps are there consistent with specific teaching methods and behavioral change practices.

The seven steps fall under the following four categories:

  1. i) Getting Ready for Students
  2. Review: – Pre-reading reviews are needed to prepare students to learn a new concept.
  3. Set of Protection: – Focus on care, earn interest – information and students ’experiences in a new sense are explored. The teacher connects the previous knowledge and experience of the student’s new topic/concept.
  4. Purpose setting: – The main objectives of the lesson are said the teacher.
  5. ii) Instructions

Input and modeling: – The teacher presents instructions to the class. He/she uses a variety of methods to keep in mind the interests and abilities of students. Various examples of everyday life experiences help students to understand new ideas.

iii) Comprehension Testing

  1. Look for comprehension: – learners learn a lesson through their own reading style. Teachers test students ’comprehension in between and then at the end of the lesson and decide which further clarification is required or not any areas/points need further clarification either with teaching materials or with various strategies. Teachers use class assignments for this purpose.
  2. Guided practice (give feedback without grading): – teacher commenting on student work is very important. Provides feedback to students for their development, learning, and their weaknesses, places where improvement is needed.
  3. iv) Independent Performance

Independent practice (usually for graded assignments): – students learning new ideas is constantly explored testing; which means monthly exams, quarterly exams. Teachers mark it again give them marks for their work.

Q NO. 4(b)

How is 5 E’s model of lesson planning different from another model?


The learning concept of Constructivism states that students create new ideas or concepts on the basis of their current/past knowledge. This model is based on constructive learning ideas. Teachers design their instructions/lessons around it the purpose of learning, mobilize resources, and give students the opportunity to do so explore, build, and demonstrate their learning. It changes the learning environment from teachers who are more focused on students.

Lesson Planning Model 5 E is most often associated with a constructivist learning structure. Includes following 5 E’s:


Learners find writing, explain their questions, do the basic function of their classwork, is to make the connection between the new and the familiar ideas, identify appropriate habits in their daily lives.


Learners who are directly involved in material things, learn the problem-solving processes. They work as a team to share information.


The learner gets a chance to explain the concepts learned such as acquisitions, procedures, and opinions on written / oral assignments or in writing / creative projects. The teacher gives us goods, books/resources, provides feedback, develops vocabulary, and clarifies misconceptions/misconceptions if any.


Teachers can increase learners’ knowledge with the help of other examples and expand their knowledge by explaining the same ideas and ask them to apply them in some cases. Reading of new ideas and raises questions related to other concepts (lead to new investigation).


Learning test is a continuous (continuous) process. Both teacher and student test comprehension concepts. The opposite assessment strategies can be used such as rubrics, checklists available and non-existent, teacher interviews, portfolios, problem-based learning outcomes, and assessment results. The results are used to assess student progress and conversion future teaching needs.

Once you have identified the needs of the students, it is time to think about designing again planning a course. Following are some of the steps suggested in this process.

* Cut out the topic

*  Decide on objectives

* Identify learning outcomes- (desired results)

*  Decide on a test

*  Design a reading experience and edit the text content

*  Improve test-testing method

*  Description of the information marketing course

Deciding on a topic

*   Connect with your students

*  What topics are your students interested in?

*  What drives the interests of your readers?

*  What has worked / not worked in the past and why?

*  How can existing lessons be developed or modified?

*  Which exercises/problems/test assignments were most appropriate?

Back editing

Start with the end in mind – Steven Covey when planning a study, the best place to start should be. To find out what students are it can rightly be expected that he will benefit from the study and arrange for material acquisition to be organized and sent to access this.

Additional Terms

The broader objectives define the most important understanding that students should have developed throughout the course. Ask yourself:

When my students leave my class at the end of this lesson, what matters is understanding I want them to remove you? Where possible, students should be involved in determining program objectives. However, in cases where the objectives are determined by the external body, e.g. stage agency or a financial institution, it is important to ensure consultation and cooperation between all of the participants.



Q No. 5

Explain different theories of motivation?


Different psychological perspectives define motivation in four different ways. But explore these four ideas; character, personality, understanding, and society.

Moral Perspective

From a moral point of view, when children are rewarded with praise and a gold star to do their job well, they will look at the following math lesson, expecting more rewards. Some time ago, you should has been awarded the same success and this experience serves as an incentive for future studies of the same type.

For well-behaved people, motivation is simply a product of successful competitive reinforcement. Therefore, they emphasize the use of external reinforcement to promote student work involvement. Reinforcement can take the form of praise, a smile, an early sign, or a loss of rights such as missing sports.

“Almost all teachers use external reinforcement in some way to motivate students, even if they do not realize they are doing it and may not use it regularly effective reinforcement. ”(Brody, 1992 in Krause, et al. 2003,)

The Human Perspective

The human view of motivation is interesting because it is not only connected to success and education but also contributes to the well-being and well-being of students by its concern for basic needs. Emphasizes the strengths of students for which they are made growth, freedom to choose their future, and good qualities.

There are two motivational ideas from a human point of view:

(a) Maslow Management Needs Division

Maslow (1954) saw encouragement in terms of the needs management phase as well thinking ‘objectives’. According to Maslow’s model, it was once the foundation of the body’s needs have been met, efforts are focused on achieving complementary needs with security, love and belonging, and self-confidence.

  1. b) Roger’s motivation theory

Carl Roger’s ideas also have an impact on discussing the type of motivation and experience impact on people’s lives.

Rogers argued: The behavior was influenced by the individual’s perception of both human and environmental factors. People should listen to what is in their hearts words ’or the natural power of judgment that was best for them, rather than relying on feedback from external sources.

Vision of Understanding

“According to Santrock (2006) the concept of motivation is very focused students’ thinking directs their motive. It focuses on the inner motivation of students to benefits, their offers (understanding of the causes of success or failure) and their own beliefs that they can better control their environment. It also emphasizes on the importance of goal setting, planning and monitoring progress towards the goal. ”

(a) Promoting Success

John Atkinson and David McClelland describe the need for success: “A  stable personality that makes other people strive for success. Students with the greatest need for success are encouraged to become getting involved in work if they believe they will succeed. That’s right taking the risk moderately and often being lured by jobs where the chances of success are high they are fifty-five; because there is a good chance that they will succeed. They love it try the job, but not if they know there is a high risk of failure. ”

Krause, on the other hand, explained: “Students who need to avoid failure, instead of the need to find success, it will look for very simple tasks and I have a small risk of failure, or very serious so that failure is not their fault. ”

(b) Weiner Attribution Vision

The concept of Attribution is about how human descriptions are success and failure influence that person’s motivation and behavior. Students can say successes or failures for a variety of reasons, depending on their own beliefs about who or what controls their successes or failures.

There are three important things to consider when it comes to students Interpret the cause of the behavioral effect. The three most important elements are lotus management, control, and stability.

Motivation is of particular interest to educational psychologists because the role it plays in learners’ learning is very important. However, some form of motivation is learning in a special educational setting varies from level to level types of motivations learned by psychologists in other fields.

Educational motivation can have a number of effects on how students learn and how they learn to behave themselves in relation to the matter. It can:

    • Direct behavior towards specific goals
    • Lead with increased effort and energy
    • Increase initiation, and persistence, in activities
    • Improve mental processing
    • Find out what the strengthening effects are
    • Take the lead in improving performance.

Because students are not always encouraged internally, they sometimes need to be available motivation, which is found in the natural environment created by teachers.




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