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what are the sources of knowledge? Define scientific method and describe its different steps.


Q no.1

what are the sources of knowledge? Define scientific method and describe its different steps.


Knowledge, in general, contains facts and ideas that make one understandevents and problem solving. A pragmatic test of human knowledge and commandits: Can I use this information to understand, explain, control, predict, or deal with agiven the status? Information can range from a simple view of an object to a file ofa deeper understanding of complex doctrine. Information can be found atdirecting personal experiences or from multiple flooding sourcesalways with conflicting claims of useful information.Claims for information on any difficulty level or any other source may arise from thosevery reliable for those who are completely unreliable. Floating movementimages recorded in our consciousness can deceive us into making misconceptionsof circumstances. The second authority we rely on for information is possibleknow what you are talking about. Verification as reliable, the information must passsome kind of success test: it should be based on evidence. What evidence is needed?How much evidence is needed? When does a person really know that he knows?

Sources of knowledge:

When his usual way of dealing with the situation produces disappointing results, man use simple methods to try solutions. By comparison experience in problem solving, he was gradually able to refine his quest for knowledge methods. Times of insecurity and occasional delays have hampered cultural progress, but there has been a thrilling escape, and a long-term trend has been expressed by knowledge expansion.

Scientific method:

To understand any complex human task we must understand language and method pursued people. The same is true of understanding science and scientific research. One must know and understand, at least in part, the language of science and  how to solve problems. One of the most confusing things about a science student is the special way a scientist does Uses common words. To make matters worse, you invent new words. There is good the reasons for this special use of language, which will emerge over time. That’s enough say now that we must understand and learn the language of the mind as well teaching scientists. When a psychologist tells us about his independence and the variety that depends on him should know what he means. When he tells us he has it randomly his testing procedures, we just don’t have to know what he means – we he must understand why he is doing what he is doing.

Similarly, the way a scientist in his problems should be well understood. Not at all so much so that this approach is different from the usual one. It’s different, that’s right, but that’s right not strange and esoteric. On the contrary. When understood, it will seem natural again it is almost inevitable that the scientist does what he does Really, we will wonder why so much human thinking and problem solving is so unorganized with such lines.

it is not possible to provide complete and satisfactory explanations due to lack of domain at this early stage in our development. In such cases we will try to build and use the first accurate estimates of the most recent, most satisfying books. Let’s get started our study by looking at how a scientist gets into his problems and this approach is different from what might be called the standard method.

Science and Common Sense

Whitehead pointed out that in the idea of ​​creating a common sense he is a bad king. “Part of it one condition of judgment is that new ideas will look like old ones. ”1 This is it means well. Common sense may be a bad postage test. However How are science and common sense similar and different? From one the theory, the science and the concept are the same. This theory would suggest that science is systematic and controlled expansion of common sense, from the functioning of the mind as  presents, a series of ideas and conceptual systems of practical reality human consumption. But these concepts and schemes are not critical

misleading modern science – and especially psychology and education. It was a revelation to many teachers of the last century – it was a common idea – to use it punishment as a basic teaching tool. Now we have evidence that this is old, the commonsense view of the cause may be quite wrong. The look seems to work very well there is a penalty for helping to learn.

Science and common sense differ greatly in five ways. This disagreement is reversed around the terms “organized” and “controlled. ”First, the use of conceptual schemes and theoretical structures are surprisingly different while the man on the street uses “Ideas” and concepts; you tend to do that freely. He often speaks badly embraces the beautiful descriptions of nature and man. For example, illness, it can be considered a punishment for sin. Economic depression can be pointed to the Jews. The scientist, on the other hand, formulates his theory systematically the structures test them for internal consistency, and the characteristics of their dynamic subjects examination. Furthermore, he realizes that the concepts he uses in human terms are possible or it may not reflect a close relationship with reality.

Charles Pierce, an American great philosopher, said that there are four common way by knowing or, as he says, by correcting a belief. The first is the firmness. Here men hold fast to the truth, the truth that they know to be true because they hold fast to it, because they already knew that it was true. Repeated repetition of these “facts” is evident to strengthen their effectiveness. Recent psychological evidence has shown us that men often do hold fast to their beliefs when faced with clear facts. And they too will focus “New” information from potentially false suggestions. The second way to know or correct a belief is through authority. This is established belief system.

If the Bible says so, that’s right. If a well-known scientist says there is God, that’s right. If the idea has the weight of culture and social judgment behind it, so be it. As Peirce points out, this approach is higher than the firmness, for man progress, though slow, can be achieved by means of a method. In fact, life was not going well out of the way of authority. We must take a great

body of facts and knowledge the basis of authority. Therefore, it should not be concluded that the method of authority absurd; it only makes sense under certain circumstances. The priori method is the third way to know or correct a belief. (Cohen and Nagel call it that the method of intuition.) It imposes its charge on supremacy0 that Suggestions adopted by the “racist” are clear. Note that priori suggestions “Agree with the reason” and not with experience. The idea seems to be that those men, are free communication and sexuality, can come to reality because of their natural tendency tend to be more precisely the kind of thinking that is expressed in the “I agree for a reason, ”Whose motive? Suppose two good men, using good judgment, reached out various conclusions, as they often do. Which is right? Is it a matter of taste, like Peirce do you put it If something is clear to most men – for example, that teaches difficult lessons he trains the mind and builds character, that American education is inferior to Russia and European education, that women are poor drivers – does that mean that? According to in the priori process, it does — it simply “makes sense.

The fourth method is the scientific method. Says Peirce: To satisfy our doubts …. therefore, it is necessary that a way be found5 with where our beliefs can be determined by any human being, but by living on the outside forever – something that our thinking has no effect on …. so that everyone’s end will be the same. That’s the way it is science. Its basic premise … is this: There are realities, with their characters completely without our opinions about them….

The scientific method6 has one feature that there is no other way to reach knowledge has: self-improvement. There are built-in checks all the way to science information. This test is pregnant and is used to control and confirm that scientific work and conclusions until the end of obtaining reliable external information . Even if the hypothesis seems to be supported by research, a scientist will support it explore other ways of thinking that, if supported, could raise doubts about the original hypothesis.

The scientist does not accept the statement as fact, even though the evidence initially appears promising. He insists on trying it. He also emphasizes that any testing process is open social testing. As Peirce points out, the checks used in scientific research are as sticky as possible the truth lies outside the scientist and his beliefs, his ideas, racism, values, attitudes, and feelings. Probably the only one that stands out above all others. But, as we’ll see later, the scientific method involves more than that. The point is that a lot Reliable information is available through science because in the end science is appealing evidence: proposals are legally tested. Dispute can be raised: The theory, which scientists use and propose, is part of the individual. However, as Polanyi points out without, “Opinion is something different than me” so the theory helps the scientist to achieve it a great aim. In short, scientists systematically and discreetly use the self-correcting aspect of the scientific method.

Steps for the Scientific Approach

In a scientific way, meaningful collection of facts replaces unconventional data collection, and buildings are tested by hope rather than speculative facts. When using scientific method, one locks back and forth between capture and importation;  he participates in enlightening thinking. In 1910, John Dewey, as we think, analyzed the sections of work involved in the act of reflective thinking. Dropping dialogue divides the five stages into the problem-solving process:

  1. The difficulty you feel

A person experiences a particular obstacle, experience, or problem that puzzles him.

  1. He has no way of reaching the end he wants.
  2. You have trouble identifying the character of the object.
  3. Cannot describe an unexpected event.
  4. Local difficulties and governance

Man looks – gathers facts – enables him to explain his difficulties accurately.

  1. Suggested problem-solving solutions

From his first study of facts man made wise predictions about potential solutions to the problem. Lovely statements – getting acquainted with him offers to explain the troubling facts called hypotheses.

  1. Contemplating the release of the results of the proposed solutions

One assumes that if each hypothesis is true, there are certain consequences should follow.

  1. Exploring ideas for action

One tests each hypothesis by searching for physical evidence that will confirm it whether the results to follow are possible or not. Through this process, you find out which hypothesis agrees with the real facts and then gives the most reliable solution to his problem. These steps in the act of enlightening thinking reveal how input and reduction work conflicting stocks of scientific cuts that cut pieces of truth. “Introduction provides a basis for thought, and reduction is a logical test the results of hypotheses, to eliminate those that do not facts, while the invention also contributes to the validity of the remaining thought ” (120: 4). Research work continues to change between data collection; to do generalizations (hypotheses) to explain facts; Reducing his effects ideas; and searching for additional facts to test ideas. By using both of admission and detention, you have access to reliable information.

The scientific approach presented above provides insight into the processes involved in conducting the investigation. These steps are calculated separately as well obviously, however, it can provide a more accurate view of the research process. These the steps do not provide a strong pattern in which the scientist has to force his thinking, because mere imagination cannot be planned. Investigators do not usually follow a set sequence of procedures. Research is often a confusing, soft process rather than a logical one, single order. The investigator does not take one step at a time, complete the process, and then move on to the next step. He may face irregular steps, stepping back again step out between steps, or work two or more steps at the same time. Other steps may be possible need less effort; other steps can take unequal time and energy.

When the researcher reports his findings to the scientific community, he builds its presentation in a straightforward and well-organized way is similar to the steps of the scientific method listed above.

Q no.2

Describe different types of research categorized on the basis of method used and the purpose of reserach.


Classification of Educational Research

Educational research can be divided into three categories; basic research ‘,’ used research ‘and’ performance research ‘. However, it should be borne in mind that there are no clear lines separating these types of studies. The basic research was the work of psychologists rather than teachers. Most academic research is applied research. Action research, in general, is the domain of class teachers.

Basis or Basis for Meaningful Research

This means that this is sometimes called ‘pure research’ or ‘basic research’. Icon it is aimed at discovering basic truths or principles and does not immediately matter Application for a specific field. Basic research emphasizes control and accuracy and provides little paying attention to the direct use of the result in the field condition. According to Travers, “Basic research is designed to complement the field of scientific knowledge and is doing it not to produce immediate value results ”.

Test method – Basic research is usually done in a laboratory and is good equipment and equipment transactions are required to conduct research. Researcher uses animal topics — As study staff are fundamentally concerned ethics and animal research allow for a much higher level of control rather than possible through human studies; basic research uses an animal rather than a human lessons. Research by staff in other fields – A lot of basic research with results in education it is done by workers in other behavioral sciences such as social.

 Featured Research

Definition – Research used or commonly referred to as ‘field research’ is particularly relevant establishing relationships and exploring ideas in field setting and applying for alternatives human samples from which research studies are conducted. For example, a Studying the friendly pattern of eighth grade students is very important if the sample has it selected in such a way that the results are expected to work well other samples of the same people. Travers notes that the research used by designed to solve a quick problem with the goal of adding scientific knowledge it is the second thing. The studies used sacrifice some degree of control and accuracy compared to basic research.

Basic and applied research

Meaning –– In basic research, the researcher tries to control the situation by using laboratory techniques or other techniques. In the research used, the researcher is involved in making inquiries in an ongoing psycho-sociological complex educational activities. There are a large number of variables in the study used border control and accuracy.

The research used is, however, conducted in real-life context a researcher interested in a quick solution to a problem. Basically research, motivation is internal and the amount of research contributes to knowledge development. Both the basic research and the applied research are committed to the highest standards of opposition to science and learning. For each type of study, the researcher tries describe the problem read accurately, you get his thoughts on the rich man source of problem-related information, build research to result in actual examination of the hypothesis, collection and analysis of facts or evidence carefully and diligently drawing done with an open mind. However, situations where these two researchers conducting their studies may differ as previously seen if the terms of control are the same accurately.

Action Research

Definition – An action study sometimes called a work study involves applying of scientific approach to classroom problems.

Activity research is similar to he used research in many ways. The research used, usually involves a large number of samples compared with the action study. In practical research many research projects have been devised is done in one classroom by one teacher, and the others can be conducted all teachers in the school or school district.

According to Best, “Action Research focuses on immediate application, not on doctrinal development, or general application. ”Action study puts Emphasis of problem, ‘here now’. Applies to location planning. In the words of Jane Franseth of the U.S. Department of Education, “Practical research is systematic tests performed by individuals or groups studying their habits in search of sound answers to the unsolved problems in their work and aimed at improving them their performance ”.

“One of the best ways to improve people’s performance is,” says Corey, “practical research curriculum practices enable them to learn what they are doing try out the ideas that seem most promising and find evidence to find out if they are better ”.

Action research is less concerned with acquiring general scientific knowledge on educational problems but on acquiring specific information regarding topics involved in the study.

Stephen M. Corey, a pioneer in the field, describes the study of actions as:

” Most research into what should be kept in schools and what should go with it should be added should be done by hundreds and thousands of classes and thousands of communities. Studies should be conducted by those who are likely to change course they do things for the sake of studies. Our schools can’t keep up with the real life it must continue and develop except that teachers, students, administrators, administrators as well school sponsors continue to test whether they are doing it. Single and in groups, they should use their imagination again constructively and constructively to identify actions to be taken adaptation to meet the needs and requirements of modern life, boldly try those practices that offer better promise, and in a collective way are evidence of testing their suitability. This is a process I call action research. I don’t have a special abbreviation for the word, but it does some kind of money and it explains enough. ”

Lehmann and Mehrens (1971) point out; “A case study is a form of application or decision direct research, but on the condition that the researcher is the same person as no a doctor who will make and live with this decision. ”

Personnel and Activity Research

In Action in academic research, researchers are usually teachers, curriculum staff, principals, managers or others have a major role to play in helping to provide quality education student experiences. The basic point is that teachers, administrators, and administrators will improve decisions and practice the most effective practices if they are also, able and willing conducting research as a basis for these decisions and practices. The process there doctors try to study their problems scientifically in order to correct, correct, and examining their decisions and actions is what many people call action research.

The book ‘Research in Education’ is published by the National Institute of Basic Education is defined as;

“Research is the research that a person does to achieve his or her goals successful goals. The teacher conducts research into actions to improve her own to teach. The school principal conducts research into actions to improve his or her management behavior. Action research represents and seeks to be more directed, more objective, and more scientifically. It results in a more thorough diagnosis and further objective testing the consequences of the action. To the extent and action aimed at effective resolution the problem arises from targeted tests, targeted at that problem and its causes, the problem is too good to be solved. The standard computer system leads to take action but after that the problem remains. Action research is a process that attempts to keep problem solving literally in contact at all stages. ”

Scope – The method of research into action to deal with real problems seems to be the case suitable and promising all kinds of professional education staff as long as their desire to improve their morals. Manager Dissatisfied with his efforts to promote good manners to his employees he may face this problem with action research, e.g. He will only do that, however, if he accepts a certain moral obligation and was willing to make some changes for him Your behavior to improve it.Exploration, Evaluation, and Descriptive Researchn the term descriptive research is often misused to describe three types of fundamentally different investigations. Perhaps their unfounded similarities are hidden their difference. Each of them uses a process of directed research using the data collection and analysis that empowers each effort to improve knowledge. Uku properly designed, each requires the expertise of a careful and systematic investigator. A brief description can help to put each one in a proper position. Exploration is a fact-finding activity that describes situations in particular time. No hypotheses are proposed or tested, no various relationships are tested, either no action recommendations are suggested. National census is a form of major research conducted by Bureau of Census, section of the United States Department of Commerce. Every 10 years of census, with classified data, nationality, age, gender, race, marital status, level of education, region and community. 3

 Define casual comparative (ex-post fector ) research and discuss it in detail with examples.


 Post Facto or Causal-Comparative Studies

Descriptive research seeks to find answers to questions about variable analysis relationships. What features seem to be associated with the emergence, effects, situations, or types of behavior? Because often it is impossible or wrong to edit events, analysis of past events or existing conditions the only possible way to study causation. This type of study is often referred to as ex post facto or causal comparison study or, when using a combination analysis, it is possible can be considered a parallel study. For example, one would not plan a car accident to learn their causes.

Automotive industry, police departments, safety commissions and insurance companies learn about situations associated with accidents that have already occurred. That’s right faulty items or excessive speed failure, driving under the influence alcohol, while others have been identified as the cause.

However, while studies of past events may be the only possible way to investigate certain problems, the researcher needs to know the problems found in this type of research. The researcher should be aware of the fact that the information used in the previous post facto studies may be incomplete. That is, the researcher may not have enough information about all

the events and variations that occur during the study. This is missing Control or information about which variables are controlled makes it justified statements based on this type of research are extremely difficult to perform.

Research on tobacco use has had a profound impact on society television advertising and smoking in some places are caused by the U.S. Reports of Surgeon General (1964.1979). These reports included a study of epidemiologists on the effects of smoking on human health. Epidemiological research methods are used to study the styles and occurrences of diseases and explain them naturally.

Epi-demonological research on smoking involves two types of explanation: retrospective studies relate to human and medical history and death records; future studies follow a group of people indefinitely or until they are dying. Early studies, from 1939 to the early 1960s, went back mainly to.

These studies found that people who had a Jed for lung cancer were more likely to have it they smoked more than non-smokers A number of prospective studies, begun in the 1950s, found a greater likelihood of a  variety of health problems among smokers than nonsmokers. Mortality ratio is simply observed deaths divided by expected deaths.

As the Surgeon General’s report states The mortality rate of male smokers compared to non-smokers, for all causes of combined deaths, 1.68 represents the total death toll of approximately 70 percent more than non-smokers. (This rate includes the death rates of unregistered diseases in the table and the 14 disease categories shown.)

In the combined results from seven studies, the average death toll for smokers in addition to nonsmokers it was very high in many diseases: lung cancer (10.8). bronchitis and emphysema (6.I) cancer of the larynx (5.4), oral Cancer (4.1), esophagus cancer (3.4) peptic ulcer (2.8), and other circulatory group diseases (2.6). According to cardiovascular disease the average mortality rate was 1.7. Expressed in percentage form, this is equivalent to a coronary artery statement disease, the leading cause of death in the country, the mortality rate is 70 percent more than smokers of tobacco.

Chronic bronchitis and emphysema, which is one of the leading causes of severe disability, the death rate for smokers is 500 percent higher than for non-smokers. With lung cancer, the most common cause of cancer in men is the mortality rate about 1,000 percent, (pp. 28-29) While this evidence seems overwhelming, they do not fully believe it. Since Investigators have not been able to randomize people in smoking and non-smoking groups it is possible that people who decide to smoke are people who are particularly nervous Their fears, not their smoking, cause their high incidence of illness as well premature death.

Just this research, as well as chemical analysis showing carcinogens with cigarette smoke and animal studies, it satisfies many scientists too the community. Youth violence studies can compare social and educational backgrounds criminals and non-criminals. What features, if any, were common in the nonprofit group? Any common items in one group, but not in another, can serve as a possible explanation for the causes of crime.

Further efforts have been made to integrate good or bad teaching with the type of an educational institution where teachers prepare. Those studies have proved inaccessible, perhaps for some reason. In addition to the difficulty of finding effective and satisfactory methods of teaching good and bad, many things except the kind of the college he went to seemed important. Variations such as reading quality, socio-economic status, personality traits, types of non-school experiences, attitudes toward teaching, and a host of others are likely to be the same.

Hoc Hoc Post

One of the greatest risks of ex post facto and comparative research causes is Post hoc fallacy, the conclusion that because two things come together one must be cause and other effect. Because there seems to be a higher relationship between the number of years of study completed and paid, many teachers objected that staying in school will increase the x value of income over a period of time each additional year of education is completed. Or there may be such a relationship, it is also possible that some of the features.

That influences young people to want more education is more important than the standard of education achieved. Features such as economic status, persistence, desire, willingness to give up quickly fun, and the level of ingenuity are undoubtedly important factors in handicrafts success. Staying in school can be a sign and not a cause.

Some critics of tobacco cancer research have developed a similar argument. That’s the case suggest following this line of reasoning: Suppose some people have the type of gland imbalance has a tendency to cancer. Inequality creates a certain amount, of emotional disturbances. Because heavy smoking is a form of smoking release of disputes, these people tend to smoke heavily. Cancer could not it is caused by an imbalance of hunger rather than from smoking, which is a mark. This is the error of confusing symptoms or things that are simply related to the cause it can lead researchers to discover the causal-d-effect relationship

This image was not presented to undermine this type of cancer research. Important evidence reveals an important relationship. Laboratory tests are supported the causal relationship between coal products released from cigarettes inflammation and lethal growth in animals. The definition of organization, however, is correct which should always be carefully checked. Ex post facto and applied comparative research is widely used and appropriate, especially in behavioral science. In education, because it is impossible, impossible, or unthinkable to manage flexibility such as competence, ingenuity, personality traits, cultural deprivation, teacher skills, and other possible variables introduces an unacceptable threat to people, this method will continue to be used.

However, its limitations should be noted:

  1. Independent variations cannot be made.
  2. Articles cannot be randomly assigned, or otherwise, assigned to treatment groups
  3. The causes are often more than one.

For these reasons scientists are reluctant to use the expression and the effect of no experimental studies where the variable was not a pair, variable B is consistently consistent, perhaps for completely incomprehensible or fully explained reasons. Given the risk of confusing symptoms and causes, ex post facto research is worthwhile not only test one hypothesis but also other rational or competing minds as well.

If used properly and carefully translated, it will continue to provide useful services how to improve knowledge. Graduates of research methods should be sensitive to the performance of external variables that threatens the authenticity of the conclusions. Glass (1968) warns teachers of the need for in-depth analysis of reported research. Mention a number of interesting examples of neglected studies that have led to completely false conclusions.

Unfortunately, these conclusions were easily accepted students are also widely reported inpopular newspapers and academic psychology textbooks. The authors hope that knowledge of the introductory course in academic research will help students and teachers to read research reports carefully and apply strict judicial standards.


Q no. 4

What is an experiment and how you will conduct and experimental research? What will be the threat to internal and external validity and how you will minimize these threats ?

Answer :

what is an experiment:

The test is a scientific machine to find the answer to the question, “If this is the case done, under carefully controlled conditions, what will happen? “Temptation a condition in which the relationship between cause and effect is determined.The basic thinking: If two conditions are the same in every way and if one thing is the same  added to one but not to the other, the resulting difference can be considered as the result of something more. Similarly, if two conditions are the same in every way and one element is removed from one state but not another, any visible difference can be caused by something that has been removed.

 Single Variability Act

The initial assumption of experimental study v is based on individual law variable. The law, in simple terms, is written in the preceding paragraph. The law provided the basis of ion testing in the early stages. Boyle’s Law and Charle’s Law examples of understanding the concept of experimentation. Boyle’s law says when the treatment of anger remains the same, the ideal gas volume is equally different the pressure is applied over the gas. In other words when the pressure increases, the volume reduces i.e.


when V volume and P pressure.

According to Charle’s law the proper gas volume is equal to the temperature

ii when the temperature rises, the volume increases. Figuratively speaking

where V volume and T heat.

Major Elements of Temptation

In standard tests, reference is usually made to the test group and the governing body. The Test Group is open to the influence of the feature with consideration and the ruling party is not exposed to it. Take a look then made to determine what differences occur and any changes or modifications that occur in the file test group as compared to control group. For example, education manager wants to recommend the purchase of some type of furniture elementary school students under his watch.

But before he did Such recommendations, you want us the height of this special furniture more two traditional furniture in these schools. We can easily run  randomly experiment with selected students and divide them into two neutral groupsand placing one group in that special type of furniture and not exposing the other partyspecial furniture (e.g. continue to use the old type of furniture). The effect ofnew furniture with the feature you want eg physical growth of students or in

The success rate of students for a period of time can be determined. In case there issome difference in outcome, recommendations can be made by educationmanager of purchase of new type of furniture.Now in this case, the “A” group represented by a special type of treatment will becalled a test group, and another group is made to stay inthe same traditional furniture, will be called the control group.


The dictionary definition of a dynamic word is one that we can imaginedifferent numerical values. In the “variable” research category are conditions orfeatures that the character uses, controls or sees. Researcherto study the effect of the use of visual aids on academic achievementand regulates the use of visual aids and monitors the success ofstudents. For this purpose he selects two groups of students who are impartial and provideteaching in one group through traditional teaching methods and in another throughuse of visual aids. This is what it means to control or deceive. After thatthe researcher records the academic success of two groups of students. This is itwe mean by looking. In this trial ‘audio and visual aids’ and ‘educational’success’ are two variables. According to the volume of Boyles ‘Law”pressure’ was two variables and in the event of a power outage Charles ‘Law’ no‘temperature’ were two variables.

a)Independent Variables

Independent variance is a condition or feature being testeditself controls or controls to see and get your impact onsomething to see. In the academic study cited above ‘special type of furniture’ and ‘visual equipment’ are independent variables. In laboratory research that developed Boyle’s Law, for example the pressure of a different amount of measurement (independent variable) is used for electricity and gas volume was measured.

(b) Dependent variables

Differences depending on the situation or feature that emerges, disappears or changes as the examiner notifies, removes or modifies the private variable. The trial is free to offer any value for independent variables but can only view or record an effective number of dependent variables. In a study on the practicality of the use of visual aids can an experimenter can varying the use of visual aids during instruction, but only you can record student academic success which may depend on teaching methods used. In setting his rule, Boyle could freely change money pressure that will be switched on and will keep / record the volume of gas corresponding to each amount of pressure.

In a flexible independent educational study it can be a form of teaching, amount and types of reinforcement (reward), academic organization, type of teaching materials, frequency and duration of any work, etc. variables can be working on tests, number of errors, speed and accuracy in the operation of any function, and any other behavioral change that may occur seen / measured.

(c) Flexible Interventions

In many forms of research especially in behavioral science, relationships between independent and dependent variables is not an easy solution to renewal type a relationship. Some variations intervene between the promoter and answer or between independent and dependent variations. This is well known as intervening variables. For example, in a test designed to investigatethe impact of a particular type of training on management performance isvariation depends. But the efficiency of the principal may be affectedfamily background, social and political conditions, his motivation for work, his willapply the changes you want, etc. These and other things can intervenedetermining the effect of training ‘in his or her management. In moralsscience, such variables are inevitable. Still, it is importantthat the examiner should be aware of these changing factors and shouldembrace the experimental design that is most appropriate to control these variables to the extent possibleit is possible.

(d)External Variation

External variables are those uncontrolled variables that can be used byresearcher but may have a significant impact on the results ofresearch study. In a study on “democracy compared to dictatorship ineducational institutions and their moderate effect on the functioning ofteachers, “there may be some variety that cannot be usedis a test but it affects the test results. Bornthe power of education authorities, their enthusiasm, theirsmissionary zeal or social and economic levels are ever-changingidentified by the researcher but which may affect the performance of the teacher(dependent variations)

Experimental validity:

In most experimental studies conducted outside the laboratory the number of external objectsvariables often confuse the result in such a way that it is difficult to detect theminfluence on the outcome. When such external variables affect resultsit is difficult to conclude that the perceived changes in the dependent variables are causedby independent variation. External diversity works by presenting conflicting ideaswhich can report on visual changes that may result from testinghypothetical flexibility. Although these external variables may not be fully functionalcompleted the researcher should be able to identify and anticipate, and do itways to reduce their influence through appropriate and careful research designexecution. So the conclusions that came with the experimental study areaccepted as true, the test must have internal and external functioning.

 Internal Performance

Internal validity is the basic basic limit required to make the results ofthe test is explanatory. Internal fitness questions or diagnostic treatmentit actually makes a difference to the dependent variable. An adequate answer to this questionrequires sufficient internal competence. Before it can be answered, the researcher must beI hope the external variables have not produced the same error asthe impact of experimental treatment. According to Best, the test is on the insideperformance to the extent that the materials used (independent variables)it actually has a real impact on the visual results (dependent variables) onexperimental setting.

 External Performance


The value of exploratory research lies in its ability to provide a basis for standard practicefrom the sample to the total population. Conclusion of a research study that separated the drill spaceimproved spelling more quickly among ten students of class IV in Pir Sohawa thannormal drilling has a very small amount of functionality except that research enables us to combineto all primary school children.

External legitimacy affects the ability to try to make a different relationshipThis is a wide range of interests and non-testing settings. External gainsoperation is difficult but it is a valid test structure, a valid mathematical analysis as wellToo many responses with different human samples in different settings, can be reducedthe problem.

The legitimacy of the test is a good thing you could wish for, because it is unlikely to be the casecompletely achieved. Internal performance is very difficult. benefit from the laboratoryset of behavioral tests where there are many variants outside oftry to control it. When test controls are tightened to achieve internal performance,an artificial, realistic situation can arise, reducing external functionality orroutine testing.

Some comparisons cannot be avoided in order to use a reasonable balance betweencommon control and performance between internal and external operations.

For higher test authentication, further attempts are made to improve the file test designs, rare, if possible, to be official. According to William Wersma, both internal and external functioning is important, and in the construction of the test we try to accept enough legitimacy. Since raising one type of validation may be desirable at the same risk, we often try to find common ground. The compromise is actually getting enough control to make an effect interpretation while maintaining sufficient accuracy so that the results will increase enough in the intended conditions. 5

 write notes on following:

  1. a) Survey study        b) Interrelationship  Studies


2.1 Where is the Survey?

According to Carter V Good, the purpose of descriptive research may be to:

  1. i) to obtain evidence relating to current or current circumstances.
  2. ii) identify standards or procedures for comparing current conditions.

iii) deciding how to do the next step (After deciding where we are again

where we wish to go).

This means that researchers are trying to solve the problem in educational institutions by doing research it collects detailed descriptions of the existing Phenomena on purpose use data to support current situations and actions or to plan self-improvement. Their goal can be to find the situation and find the sufficiency of comparing it with selected or established standards. Research studies collect data from multiple scenarios over a period of time.

This has nothing to do with human characteristics but their main concern is perform standard based on data collected in most cases. Research can be broad or narrow in scope. They could cover several countries or possibly confinement in one state, city or other part. Survey data can be collected from all files a member of the population or from a carefully selected sample. Data can be collected in respect of a large number of related items or a few selected items. Width and depth research depends largely on the type of problem. The survey data is actually research and is highly fragmented in the general report. But for this reason the research study must meet the following conditions:

  1. a) The research report usually has a different scenario, given direct attention describes method, resources, population, study factor, and other relevant methodological or technical details.
  2. b) Maybe a real look is taken.
  3. c) Each step in the process continues with careful care and proper consideration great plan and purpose of work. Details are verified and checked.
  4. d) Details are resolved, or categorized into specific terms, and exist sometimes related to a single, complete concept. Certainly the details will be summarized in one way or another, in the most orderly way possible. Data transactions by a clear part of the contribution to research.
  5. e) The background, sensitivity, and general ability of the investigator, as well the spirit with which he operates, is essential. About what a lesson should be above or below the qualifications listed, there is probably no clear rule to be given.

These qualities vary in degree; different types of research have their own goals. One should aim, It has done its research, not the minimum requirements of research, but with full attachment.  Although the researchers of the study made an effort to come up with the above methods but there are some limitations of research studies from Most cases due to the nature of the data used in these studies. Some of these limitations are similar


  1. i) Unidentified details’ of the respondent could not be found in the survey.
  2. ii) Details that are not important to the respondent cannot be obtained reliably way.

iii) Information provided to respondents may not be accurate at the case is about aspects that respondents intend to hide, although i confirmation is given to the respondent with his remaining secret.

  1. iv) Details about jobs assigned to a very small portion of the population are unknown found reliably in the excavated research.
  2. v) Details that can only be obtained by high sample error are not valid sample survey topics:
  3. vi) Data obtained from one survey is less reliable than trend data obtained from two or more consecutive surveys conducted in similar ways.

vii) Research cannot be relied upon in obtaining accurate forecasts .

The following are the major types of research studies:

  • School Research
  • Community Surveys
  • Community Surveys
  • Document Analysis
  • Job Analysis
  • Follow-up Studies

Each of these is described in the following paragraphs.

 School Survey

School examinations began at the turn of the century with academic experts at United

The world. School research covers the following aspects of school planning:

  • Objectives, outcomes, curriculum achievement, method and teaching resources.
  • Management problems and school procedures.
  • Financial policies
  • Staff and employees
  • Student transport
  • School plant

School research data is collected through observations, questions, interviews, scorecard scoring cards, rating scales and other data collection strategies. Analysis of such information enables educators to perform recommendations on the basis of which editors can improve management, educational, financial and academic methods in educational institutions.

 Types of School Research

There are three types of school research:

  • external specialist research
  • self-examination
  • Collaborative Research.

Foreign Experts Survey; The External Experimental Study is specially designed, by researchers at a national university or Department of Education.


The Self Survey was conducted by members of the educational institutions concerned or organizations.

Collaborative Research

Collaborative research is conducted by local staff through an external consultant or citizens and local staff. Collaborative research is often considered more comprehensive it works more effectively than that done by external experts. Specialists may be well trained in testing techniques but may have limited knowledge of the environment and will require the assistance of education educators and local staff who are most familiar with local and regional community problems. Otherwise, if local members do not participate surveys, may not see the need for change and may ignore you recommendations for change. Data Required for School Survey

Most of the information required for the survey falls into the following categories:

  1. i) Learning status
  2. ii) Features of academic staff

iii) Status of students

  1. iv) Type of educational process

Learning Status

Other studies study the legal, administrative, social or physical setting of learning, or possibly investigate the obligations of local councils or Education Boards, or you may require details on various aspects of school plants such as lighting fixtures, playgrounds, libraries and laboratory equipment. Research can also investigate the features of a social structure in the classroom, home or community that can influence learning. Features of Education Staff Much research collects information about teachers, administrators and administrators.

The study examines the teaching behavior of a person in the classroom, department and the public to evaluate the effectiveness of teaching, or research can investigate communication between administrators, heads of departments, teachers and non-educators staff.

Student Status

Much research has been done to study student behavior in the classroom, e at home and in the community. Investigators may ask questions about students’ health, attitudes, and skills, academic achievement, intelligence, competence, skills, and work or study habits. Attendance rates may also be calculated.

Type of Education Process

Sometimes research focuses on educational programs, processes and outcomes. The researcher can learn about the success of the curriculum: what and what is not included in it curriculum.

Social Research

There is a close relationship between the education sector and the community. Teachers usually collects data about the layout of the area and certain aspects of life in it. Sometimes they join social scientists in fact to find projects known as social polls. This is possible also called community surveys or field studies. These surveys are closely related to the school surveys. They may collect information about schools or on the other hand about school surveys can analyze many aspects of society.

Social research can focus on a particular situation such as health services, or employed or may provide data relating to a particular part ,, of the public, such as rural areas women, can cover in detail many aspects of public health. Width as well The depth of the public survey is determined by the nature of the problem, the value of time and money, effective leadership and community commitment. Public survey investigators use questionnaires, intervolves and direct observation. They collect data from teachers, students and administrators and use a different method to gather information about various social processes.

Literature Review

Document analysis is also called content analysis or information analysis. Icon is similar to historical research and both methods require an examination of existing records but historical research is related to the past when the analysis of documents as a form of descriptive research, related to the present tense.

In this type of research, the researcher may simply collect and clarify factual data from official reports of institutions, organizations or may specify or scrutinize the contents of texts according to set criteria.

The researcher, however, should keep in mind that the date from the print is not honestly and all documents used in this type of descriptive research must faced the same critical criticism used by historians. The authenticity of the document and the legitimacy of the content in it are very importance. It is the researcher’s job to establish the validity of the the promise of all the details draws to document sources.

Inter relationship study :

Scholars collect facts to provide an accurate description of their condition make an effort to find the connection between the facts that will provide a deeper understanding in events.

According to Van Dalen, there are three types of studies included in this the type of descriptive research. These are:

  1. i) Exemplary lessons
  2. ii) General Comparison Studies

iii) Meeting Studies.

A detailed discussion of each of the three types of subjects is provided below.

Case Study

When focusing on one case or a limited amount of cases, the procedure is customized and that research is included in the Case Study method of descriptive research. This tutorial is expanded to include any detail definition and analysis of an individual, event, institution or community. This type of the subject is called ‘boring’, that is, trying to understand morality or people’s attitudes without trying to convey some of these findings to others people or groups.

Research case studies can be conducted for the following purposes:

i.It gave the detective ideas that may be difficult to read another context.

  1. The case study may give the investigator a different status that can be used for testing


iii. A study that may provide new information, help to change existing beliefs and pointers removing gaps in information;

iv.A study that may be helpful in demonstrating how a theoretical model can be shown with a concrete model.

Case Study data can come from a variety of sources. The researcher may ask the articles that remember what happened in the past or reflect conversations and current situations. Personal texts such as diaries, books and other physical, mental or emotional social measures can reveal important details.

Case studies are similar to research but instead of collecting information on a few aspectsfrom a large number of social units, a powerful study of the limited number ofrepresentative cases are made. It is small in scales but is naturally perfect than aresearch.

 Core Comparative Studies

Some researchers, while conducting descriptive research, are not just trying to figure out what athing, but also how and why it happened. They’re trying to figure out what things are, eitherconditions, certain events or practices are associated with the appearance of an object.

In social science, where it is difficult to control the various variables, the causal comparisonmethod used instead of exploratory research. It is not always possible foreducational planner to select, manage and manage the materials needed to study the causeand relationship relationships as a result. This method therefore enables the researcher to analyze what is happening in the filenatural environment rather than a lab. In testing, a researcher is possiblethinking; ‘If recognized’. He then uses the independent variable and exposes thetesting group to hear A, while restricting experience in controlgroup and observer outcome In the causal comparison study, the researcher observes. Phenomena B then searches backwards for the number of possible causes of nakedness items-independent variables-related or contributing to the occurrence of events.

For example, a researcher wants to find out the causes of violence in, education center. Cannot set up a control panel to test whether certain features will create chaos. He will compare the centers where the violence took place with other institutions namely they had no disturbances. You will learn the similarities and the differences between these two situations and the will determine what causes the occasional upheaval and not find it another.

This type of research has some limitations. Lack of control over the biggest weaknesses this way. Suppose a researcher sees an object B and assumes an A caused by B. The data may indicate that A is related to B but without the control of A, he cannot make sure something else is C, D or has not happened in B. So can we that causal comparison studies do not produce reliable and accurate information that experimental research can do. But they do offer a way to diagnose potential problems investigating laboratory conditions.

Relationship Studies

Definitions of conditions are sometimes made using the merging process, which aids in determining how closely the two variables are related or the magnitude what is different from the other is the same as the difference from the other. The researcher in these types of studies does not use independent variables but himself it is simply considered both ‘independent’ and ‘dependent’ variants as this happens in a natural state.

An example is a researcher who studies the relationship between IQ. and success, randomly select a specific group and measure IQ and success through other tests. The two variations in this type of study are probably very closely related, in moderation related or completely unrelated. Usually, the size of the meeting depends on him the rate at which an increase or decrease in a single variable is accompanied by an increase or downgrade to another variable whether you are heading in the same direction or in a different direction.

Because for example, a good high coefficient exists when a high position in one set corresponds to a the highest position in the other (the highest score for successful IQ tests) and the lowest level in one set is corresponding to a lower position than the other. There is a high concentration that is generally not good a high position in one set of schools is equivalent to a low level in another (high IQ, low points for successful testing). No or there is little coincidence if the high points in one set are such may be associated with a lower score such as high score in another set combination, therefore, reach the scale from the negative combination of the total, to the number integration and perfect remediation.

The integration process is an important research tool but the equivalent of integration it simply estimates the extent to which the two variants are related and does not mean that the causal relationship of the result exists. The definition of a relationship is translated with logical analysis rather than mathematical calculation. This is the best translation limitations in which causal comparisons are taught.


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